In the past, cheese was produced on a small scale on farms; today, it is produced on a global level, either for consumption as a food on its own or as a food ingredient. In this respect, the characteristics of cheeses at elevated temperatures are significant factors for quality evaluation. Furthermore, the structure of cheese is altered by heating, which affects its functional characteristics. Therefore, the melting of cheese is a major commercial attribute because it is the primary determinant in evaluating quality for specific applications. Thus, the assessment of the melt and flow characteristics of cheese is particularly crucial for the successful use of cheese as an ingredient. This review presents an overview of cheese melting, from the fundamentals of phase transitions to heat-induced changes in cheese. Also, the mechanisms underlying these changes and the current information on melting measurement methods are explained, along with their strengths and limitations.