Mediation of emotional and external eating between dieting and food intake or BMI gain in women

Tatjana van Strien*, Hanna M. Konttinen, Machteld A. Ouwens, Floris A. van de Laar, Laura H.H. Winkens

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Objective: Dieting to control body weight is often associated with weight gain, particularly so in women; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In a series of studies on women, we examined whether the relationship between dieting and weight gain can be explained by (serial) mediation of emotional eating (EE) and/or subsequent external eating (EX). Methods: In a pilot study (116 women), we first assessed this (serial) mediation between dieting or dietary restraint and actual food consumption in the laboratory. In Study 1, a four-year follow up on patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (51 women), we assessed this (serial) mediation between dietary restraint and change in BMI and intake of energy (Kcal; Food Frequency Questionnaire). In Study 2, a three-year follow up study in a representative Dutch sample (287 women), we assessed this (serial) mediation between dieting and change in BMI. Results: There was consistent support for (serial) mediation: In the pilot study, frequency of dieting and dietary restraint were both indirectly associated with grams of crackers eaten through EE and EX. In study 1, dietary restraint had a significant (95% CI) indirect association with subsequent change in measured BMI and a marginally (90% CI) significant indirect association with intake of energy through EE and EX. In study 2, EE marginally (90% CI) acted as a mediator between frequency of dieting and subsequent self-reported change in BMI. In the subsample of overweight women (n = 146) frequency of dieting was indirectly associated with subsequent self-reported change in BMI through EE and EX. Conclusion: The possibility that female dieters may gain weight through EE and/or subsequent EX should be taken into account when treating women with overweight or obesity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104493
JournalAppetite
Volume145
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2020

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Eating
Weight Gain
Energy Intake
Food
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Obesity
Body Weight

Keywords

  • (Serial) mediation
  • Dieting
  • Emotional eating
  • External eating
  • Weight gain
  • Women

Cite this

van Strien, Tatjana ; Konttinen, Hanna M. ; Ouwens, Machteld A. ; van de Laar, Floris A. ; Winkens, Laura H.H. / Mediation of emotional and external eating between dieting and food intake or BMI gain in women. In: Appetite. 2020 ; Vol. 145.
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title = "Mediation of emotional and external eating between dieting and food intake or BMI gain in women",
abstract = "Objective: Dieting to control body weight is often associated with weight gain, particularly so in women; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In a series of studies on women, we examined whether the relationship between dieting and weight gain can be explained by (serial) mediation of emotional eating (EE) and/or subsequent external eating (EX). Methods: In a pilot study (116 women), we first assessed this (serial) mediation between dieting or dietary restraint and actual food consumption in the laboratory. In Study 1, a four-year follow up on patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (51 women), we assessed this (serial) mediation between dietary restraint and change in BMI and intake of energy (Kcal; Food Frequency Questionnaire). In Study 2, a three-year follow up study in a representative Dutch sample (287 women), we assessed this (serial) mediation between dieting and change in BMI. Results: There was consistent support for (serial) mediation: In the pilot study, frequency of dieting and dietary restraint were both indirectly associated with grams of crackers eaten through EE and EX. In study 1, dietary restraint had a significant (95{\%} CI) indirect association with subsequent change in measured BMI and a marginally (90{\%} CI) significant indirect association with intake of energy through EE and EX. In study 2, EE marginally (90{\%} CI) acted as a mediator between frequency of dieting and subsequent self-reported change in BMI. In the subsample of overweight women (n = 146) frequency of dieting was indirectly associated with subsequent self-reported change in BMI through EE and EX. Conclusion: The possibility that female dieters may gain weight through EE and/or subsequent EX should be taken into account when treating women with overweight or obesity.",
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Mediation of emotional and external eating between dieting and food intake or BMI gain in women. / van Strien, Tatjana; Konttinen, Hanna M.; Ouwens, Machteld A.; van de Laar, Floris A.; Winkens, Laura H.H.

In: Appetite, Vol. 145, 104493, 01.02.2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mediation of emotional and external eating between dieting and food intake or BMI gain in women

AU - van Strien, Tatjana

AU - Konttinen, Hanna M.

AU - Ouwens, Machteld A.

AU - van de Laar, Floris A.

AU - Winkens, Laura H.H.

PY - 2020/2/1

Y1 - 2020/2/1

N2 - Objective: Dieting to control body weight is often associated with weight gain, particularly so in women; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In a series of studies on women, we examined whether the relationship between dieting and weight gain can be explained by (serial) mediation of emotional eating (EE) and/or subsequent external eating (EX). Methods: In a pilot study (116 women), we first assessed this (serial) mediation between dieting or dietary restraint and actual food consumption in the laboratory. In Study 1, a four-year follow up on patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (51 women), we assessed this (serial) mediation between dietary restraint and change in BMI and intake of energy (Kcal; Food Frequency Questionnaire). In Study 2, a three-year follow up study in a representative Dutch sample (287 women), we assessed this (serial) mediation between dieting and change in BMI. Results: There was consistent support for (serial) mediation: In the pilot study, frequency of dieting and dietary restraint were both indirectly associated with grams of crackers eaten through EE and EX. In study 1, dietary restraint had a significant (95% CI) indirect association with subsequent change in measured BMI and a marginally (90% CI) significant indirect association with intake of energy through EE and EX. In study 2, EE marginally (90% CI) acted as a mediator between frequency of dieting and subsequent self-reported change in BMI. In the subsample of overweight women (n = 146) frequency of dieting was indirectly associated with subsequent self-reported change in BMI through EE and EX. Conclusion: The possibility that female dieters may gain weight through EE and/or subsequent EX should be taken into account when treating women with overweight or obesity.

AB - Objective: Dieting to control body weight is often associated with weight gain, particularly so in women; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In a series of studies on women, we examined whether the relationship between dieting and weight gain can be explained by (serial) mediation of emotional eating (EE) and/or subsequent external eating (EX). Methods: In a pilot study (116 women), we first assessed this (serial) mediation between dieting or dietary restraint and actual food consumption in the laboratory. In Study 1, a four-year follow up on patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (51 women), we assessed this (serial) mediation between dietary restraint and change in BMI and intake of energy (Kcal; Food Frequency Questionnaire). In Study 2, a three-year follow up study in a representative Dutch sample (287 women), we assessed this (serial) mediation between dieting and change in BMI. Results: There was consistent support for (serial) mediation: In the pilot study, frequency of dieting and dietary restraint were both indirectly associated with grams of crackers eaten through EE and EX. In study 1, dietary restraint had a significant (95% CI) indirect association with subsequent change in measured BMI and a marginally (90% CI) significant indirect association with intake of energy through EE and EX. In study 2, EE marginally (90% CI) acted as a mediator between frequency of dieting and subsequent self-reported change in BMI. In the subsample of overweight women (n = 146) frequency of dieting was indirectly associated with subsequent self-reported change in BMI through EE and EX. Conclusion: The possibility that female dieters may gain weight through EE and/or subsequent EX should be taken into account when treating women with overweight or obesity.

KW - (Serial) mediation

KW - Dieting

KW - Emotional eating

KW - External eating

KW - Weight gain

KW - Women

U2 - 10.1016/j.appet.2019.104493

DO - 10.1016/j.appet.2019.104493

M3 - Article

VL - 145

JO - Appetite

JF - Appetite

SN - 0195-6663

M1 - 104493

ER -