Mechanisms Involved in Nematode Control by Endophytic Fungi

Sander Schouten*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


Colonization of plants by particular endophytic fungi can provide plants with improved defenses toward nematodes. Evidently, such endophytes can be important in developing more sustainable agricultural practices. The mechanisms playing a role in this quantitative antagonism are poorly understood but most likely multifactorial. This knowledge gap obstructs the progress regarding the development of endophytes or endophyte-derived constituents into biocontrol agents. In part, this may be caused by the fact that endophytic fungi form a rather heterogeneous group. By combining the knowledge of the currently characterized antagonistic endophytic fungi and their effects on nematode behavior and biology with the knowledge of microbial competition and induced plant defenses, the various mechanisms by which this nematode antagonism operates or may operate are discussed. Now that new technologies are becoming available and more accessible, the currently unresolved mechanisms can be studied in greater detail than ever before.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-142
JournalAnnual Review of Phytopathology
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Endophyte
  • Entomopathogenic nematodes
  • Induced plant defenses
  • Microbial antagonism
  • Pest and disease management
  • Plant-parasitic nematodes
  • Toxins


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