Mechanism and control of Genipa americana seed germination

S.E.E. Queiroz, E.A.A. da Silva, A.C. Davide, A.C. Jose, A.T. Silva, A.C.R. Fraiz, J.M.R. Faria, H.W.M. Hilhorst

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Genipa americana (Rubiaceae) is important for restoration of riparian forest in the Brazilian Cerrado. The objective was to characterize the mechanism and control of germination of G. americana to support uniform seedling production. Morphology and morphometrics of seeds, embryo and endosperm were assessed by light and scanning electron microscopy during germination. Imbibition and germination curves were generated and over the same time interval endosperm digestion and resistance were measured by puncture force analysis and activity assay of endo-ß-mannanase in water and in abscisic acid. The gene encoding for endo-ß-mannanase was partially cloned and its expression monitored by qRT-PCR. Embryos displayed growth prior to radicle protrusion. A two-phase increase in endo-ß-mannanase activity coincided with the two stages of weakening of the micropylar endosperm. The second stage also coincided with growth of the embryo prior to radicle protrusion. Enzyme activity was initiated in the micropylar endosperm but spread to the lateral endosperm. ABA
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)263-276
JournalPhysiologia Plantarum
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • endo-beta-mannanase
  • tomato lycopersicon-esculentum
  • endosperm cap
  • abscisic-acid
  • cell-wall
  • micropylar endosperm
  • radicle emergence
  • molecular-cloning
  • embryo
  • gene

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    Queiroz, S. E. E., da Silva, E. A. A., Davide, A. C., Jose, A. C., Silva, A. T., Fraiz, A. C. R., ... Hilhorst, H. W. M. (2012). Mechanism and control of Genipa americana seed germination. Physiologia Plantarum, 144(3), 263-276.