Measuring Eco-efficiency of Production with Data Envelopment Analysis

T.K. Kuosmanen, M. Kortelainen

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404 Citations (Scopus)


Aggregation of environmental pressures into a single environmental damage index is a major challenge of eco-efficiency measurement. This article examines how the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method can be adapted for this purpose. DEA accounts for substitution possibilities between different natural resources and emissions and does not require subjective judgment about the weights. Although DEA does not require subjective or normative judgment, soft weight restrictions can be incorporated into the framework. The proposed approach is illustrated by an application to assessing eco-efficiency of road transportation in the three largest towns of eastern Finland.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-72
JournalJournal of Industrial Ecology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2005


  • of-the-art
  • environmental performance
  • undesirable outputs
  • firms
  • models


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