Measurement of palmitoylethanolamide and other N-acylethanolamines during physiological and pathological conditions

M.G.J. Balvers, K.C.M. Verhoeckx, J. Meijerink, H.M. Wortelboer, R.F. Witkamp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) belongs to the N-acyl ethanolamines (NAEs), a group of endogenous compounds involved in a variety of physiological processes, including energy homeostasis and inflammation. This review focuses on the analysis of PEA in plasma and tissues and discusses effects of diet and some pathological processes on PEA levels. Originally isolated from egg yolk, PEA has been detected in a variety of tissues and plasma of different species. The compound is present at relatively high levels compared to other NAEs and now mostly analysed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. PEA plasma concentrations show marked fluctuations during the day. However, concentrations in tissues are likely to be more relevant than those in plasma. Most studies suggest that compared to other NAEs, tissue PEA tissue levels are not influenced by changes in dietary fatty acid composition. Effects of inflammation and disease on PEA tissue levels show differences between different models and studies. Therefore, more research is needed on the endogenous role and tissue kinetics of PEA during disease. The rediscovery of the therapeutic potential of PEA has fuelled research and the development of new pharmaceutical formulations. With regard to this there is a need for better kinetic data and models, preferably also on its tissue disposition. Moreover, it is important to learn more about effects of exogenous PEA on the kinetics of other NAEs (and endocannabinoids) and effects of inhibiting its breakdown using inhibitors of the degrading enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase or N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)26-33
JournalCNS & Neurological Disorders
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Fingerprint

Ethanolamines
amidase
palmidrol
N-acylethanolamines
Physiological Phenomena
Inflammation
Endocannabinoids
Drug Compounding
Egg Yolk
Enzyme Inhibitors
Pathologic Processes
Research
Liquid Chromatography
Mass Spectrometry
Homeostasis
Fatty Acids
Diet
Acids

Keywords

  • tandem mass-spectrometry
  • polyunsaturated fatty-acids
  • human plasma
  • adipose-tissue
  • endocannabinoid metabolome
  • electrospray-ionization
  • palmitoyl-ethanolamine
  • quantitative method
  • rat-brain
  • fish-oil

Cite this

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title = "Measurement of palmitoylethanolamide and other N-acylethanolamines during physiological and pathological conditions",
abstract = "Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) belongs to the N-acyl ethanolamines (NAEs), a group of endogenous compounds involved in a variety of physiological processes, including energy homeostasis and inflammation. This review focuses on the analysis of PEA in plasma and tissues and discusses effects of diet and some pathological processes on PEA levels. Originally isolated from egg yolk, PEA has been detected in a variety of tissues and plasma of different species. The compound is present at relatively high levels compared to other NAEs and now mostly analysed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. PEA plasma concentrations show marked fluctuations during the day. However, concentrations in tissues are likely to be more relevant than those in plasma. Most studies suggest that compared to other NAEs, tissue PEA tissue levels are not influenced by changes in dietary fatty acid composition. Effects of inflammation and disease on PEA tissue levels show differences between different models and studies. Therefore, more research is needed on the endogenous role and tissue kinetics of PEA during disease. The rediscovery of the therapeutic potential of PEA has fuelled research and the development of new pharmaceutical formulations. With regard to this there is a need for better kinetic data and models, preferably also on its tissue disposition. Moreover, it is important to learn more about effects of exogenous PEA on the kinetics of other NAEs (and endocannabinoids) and effects of inhibiting its breakdown using inhibitors of the degrading enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase or N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase.",
keywords = "tandem mass-spectrometry, polyunsaturated fatty-acids, human plasma, adipose-tissue, endocannabinoid metabolome, electrospray-ionization, palmitoyl-ethanolamine, quantitative method, rat-brain, fish-oil",
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year = "2013",
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language = "English",
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pages = "26--33",
journal = "CNS & Neurological Disorders",
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Measurement of palmitoylethanolamide and other N-acylethanolamines during physiological and pathological conditions. / Balvers, M.G.J.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Meijerink, J.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Witkamp, R.F.

In: CNS & Neurological Disorders, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2013, p. 26-33.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Measurement of palmitoylethanolamide and other N-acylethanolamines during physiological and pathological conditions

AU - Balvers, M.G.J.

AU - Verhoeckx, K.C.M.

AU - Meijerink, J.

AU - Wortelboer, H.M.

AU - Witkamp, R.F.

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) belongs to the N-acyl ethanolamines (NAEs), a group of endogenous compounds involved in a variety of physiological processes, including energy homeostasis and inflammation. This review focuses on the analysis of PEA in plasma and tissues and discusses effects of diet and some pathological processes on PEA levels. Originally isolated from egg yolk, PEA has been detected in a variety of tissues and plasma of different species. The compound is present at relatively high levels compared to other NAEs and now mostly analysed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. PEA plasma concentrations show marked fluctuations during the day. However, concentrations in tissues are likely to be more relevant than those in plasma. Most studies suggest that compared to other NAEs, tissue PEA tissue levels are not influenced by changes in dietary fatty acid composition. Effects of inflammation and disease on PEA tissue levels show differences between different models and studies. Therefore, more research is needed on the endogenous role and tissue kinetics of PEA during disease. The rediscovery of the therapeutic potential of PEA has fuelled research and the development of new pharmaceutical formulations. With regard to this there is a need for better kinetic data and models, preferably also on its tissue disposition. Moreover, it is important to learn more about effects of exogenous PEA on the kinetics of other NAEs (and endocannabinoids) and effects of inhibiting its breakdown using inhibitors of the degrading enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase or N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase.

AB - Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) belongs to the N-acyl ethanolamines (NAEs), a group of endogenous compounds involved in a variety of physiological processes, including energy homeostasis and inflammation. This review focuses on the analysis of PEA in plasma and tissues and discusses effects of diet and some pathological processes on PEA levels. Originally isolated from egg yolk, PEA has been detected in a variety of tissues and plasma of different species. The compound is present at relatively high levels compared to other NAEs and now mostly analysed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. PEA plasma concentrations show marked fluctuations during the day. However, concentrations in tissues are likely to be more relevant than those in plasma. Most studies suggest that compared to other NAEs, tissue PEA tissue levels are not influenced by changes in dietary fatty acid composition. Effects of inflammation and disease on PEA tissue levels show differences between different models and studies. Therefore, more research is needed on the endogenous role and tissue kinetics of PEA during disease. The rediscovery of the therapeutic potential of PEA has fuelled research and the development of new pharmaceutical formulations. With regard to this there is a need for better kinetic data and models, preferably also on its tissue disposition. Moreover, it is important to learn more about effects of exogenous PEA on the kinetics of other NAEs (and endocannabinoids) and effects of inhibiting its breakdown using inhibitors of the degrading enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase or N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase.

KW - tandem mass-spectrometry

KW - polyunsaturated fatty-acids

KW - human plasma

KW - adipose-tissue

KW - endocannabinoid metabolome

KW - electrospray-ionization

KW - palmitoyl-ethanolamine

KW - quantitative method

KW - rat-brain

KW - fish-oil

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DO - 10.2174/1871527311312010007

M3 - Article

VL - 12

SP - 26

EP - 33

JO - CNS & Neurological Disorders

JF - CNS & Neurological Disorders

SN - 1871-5273

IS - 1

ER -