Measurement of lipid transfer protein in 88 apple cultivars

A.I. Sancho, R. van Ree, A. van Leeuwen, E.J. Meulenbroek, W.E. van de Weg, L.J.W.J. Gilissen, H. Puehringer, M. Laimer, A. Martinelli, M. Zaccharini, S. Vazquez-Cortes, M. Fernandez-Rivas, K. Hoffmann-Sommergruber, E.N. Clare Mills, L. Zuidmeer

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    38 Citations (Scopus)


    Background: Fruits are a major cause of food allergy in adults. Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are implicated in severe allergic reactions to fruits, but little is known about LTP content in different cultivars. Objective: Determination of the levels of LTP in a wide range of apple cultivars. Methods: LTP was measured in apples from 53 cultivars grown in Italy and 35 grown in The Netherlands, using three different immunoassays: a competitive ELISA (cELISA), a sandwich ELISA (sELISA) and a RAST inhibition (RI). Selected cultivars were evaluated using the basophil histamine release test (BHR), skin prick test (SPT) and double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Results: LTP levels measured with the three immunoassays were significantly correlated, as judged by Pearson's correlation (0.61 <Rp <0.65; p <0.0001), but differed with respect to the actual quantities: 3.4-253.2 (sELISA), 2.7-120.2 (cELISA) and 0.4-47.3 µg/g tissue (RI). Between cultivars, LTP titers varied over about a two-log range. Pilot in vitro and in vivo biological testing (BHR, SPT and DBPCFC) with selected cultivars supported the observed differences in LTP levels. Conclusions: Around 100-fold differences in LTP levels exist between apple cultivars. Whether the lowest observed levels of LTP warrant designation as hypo-allergenic requires more extensive confirmation by oral challenges. Determination of cultivar variation in LTP levels provides important information for growers and consumers. Comparison to earlier reported Mal d 1 levels in the same cultivars reveals that a designation as low allergenic does not always coincide for both allergens.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)19-26
    JournalInternational Archives of Allergy and Immunology
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2008


    • oral allergy syndrome
    • malus-domestica
    • rosaceae fruits
    • plant foods
    • in-vivo
    • pollen
    • ige
    • allergenicity
    • reactivity
    • mal-d-3

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