Livestock production houses are generally associated with high emissions of airborne microorganisms and dust. The emitted aerosols, especially pathogenic microorganisms, may impair respiratory tract systems of recipients in vicinity and pose a risk to infect healthy animals at other houses and/or farms through airborne transmission. After several epidemics of highly infectious disease in the past few decades, airborne transmission has been increasingly suspected by epidemiologists to be responsible for the infection incidents that cannot be explained by other well-known transmission mechanisms (e.g. direct contact, vector). However, this epidemiological hypothesis has never gained fully credibility, yet the extent to which airborne transmission may play a role in the epidemics is not understood. Also, how dust acts as a carrier of microorganisms in airborne transmission is unknown. Clearly, in-depth understanding of the entire process of long-distance airborne transmission (from microbial suspension, transportation until deposition and infection, as well as relation between microorganisms and dust) is required along with incorporating accurate measurements of airborne microorganisms and dust by reliable samplers. Effective mitigation techniques for aerosol emissions that can minimize emissions of pathogenic agents are in need as precaution.