The alkenylbenzene estragole is a constituent of several herbs and spices. It induces hepatomas in rodents at high doses following bioactivation by cytochrome P450s and sulfotransferases (SULTs) giving rise to the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite 1'-sulfooxyestragole which forms DNA adducts. Methanolic extracts from different alkenylbenzene-containing herbs and spices were able to inhibit SULT activity. Flavonoids including quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, apigenin, and nevadensin were the major constituents responsible for this inhibition with Ki values in the nano to micromolar range. In human HepG2 cells exposed to the proximate carcinogen 1'-hydroxyestragole, the various flavonoids were able to inhibit estragole DNA adduct formation and shift metabolism in favor of glucuronidation which is a detoxification pathway for 1'-hydroxyestragole. In a next step, the kinetics for SULT inhibition were incorporated in physiologically based biokinetic (PBBK) models for estragole in rat and human to predict the effect of co-exposure to estragole and (mixtures of) the different flavonoids on the bioactivation in vivo. The PBBK-model-based predictions indicate that the reduction of estragole bioactivation in rat and human by co-administration of the flavonoids is dependent on whether the intracellular liver concentrations of the flavonoids can reach their Ki values. It is expected that this is most easily achieved for nevadensin which has a Ki value in the nanomolar range and is, due to its methyl ation, more metabolically stable than the other flavonoids.
- p-form phenolsulfotransferase
- potent inhibitors
- interaction threshold
Al-Husainy, W. A. A. M., van den Berg, S. J. P. L., Paini, A., Campana, A., Asselman, M., Spenkelink, A., Punt, A., Scholz, G., Schilter, B., Adams, T. B., van Bladeren, P. J., & Rietjens, I. (2012). Matrix Modulation of the Bioactivation of Estragole by Constituents of Different Alkenylbenzene-containing Herbs and Spices and Physiologically Based Biokinetic Modeling of Possible In Vivo Effects. Toxicological sciences, 129(1), 174-187. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfs196