Mass spectrometric characterisation of avenanthramides and enhancing their production by germination of oat (Avena sativa)

Wouter J.C. de Bruijn, Sarah van Dinteren, Harry Gruppen, Jean Paul Vincken*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Avenanthramides are amides, with a phenylalkenoic acid (PA) and an anthranilic acid (AA) subunit, which are secondary metabolites of oat. Oat seeds were germinated, extracted, and the avenanthramides analysed by a combination of UHPLC with ion trap and high resolution ESI-MS. Typical fragmentation pathways with corresponding diagnostic fragments belonging to the PA and AA subunits were identified and summarised in a decision guideline. Based on these findings 28 unique avenanthramides were annotated in the oat seed(ling) extracts, including the new avenanthramide 6f (with a 4/5-methoxy AA subunit). Avenanthramide content increased by 25 times from seed to seedling. Avenanthramides 2p, 2c, and 2f, which are commonly described as the major avenanthramides, represented less than 20% of the total content in the seedlings. Future quantitative analyses should, therefore, include a wider range of avenanthramides to avoid underestimation of the total avenanthramide content.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)682-690
JournalFood Chemistry
Volume277
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Mar 2019

Keywords

  • Avena sativa
  • Avenanthramides
  • Cereal grain
  • Germination
  • LC-MS
  • Phytoalexin
  • Plant defence
  • Poaceae

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