Marine sediment has a great potential to generate electricity with a bioelectrochemical system (BES) like the microbial fuel cell (MFC). In this study, we investigated the potential of marine sediment and activated carbon (AC) to generate and store electricity. Both internal and external energy supply was validated for storage behavior. Four types of anode electrode compositions were investigated. Two types were mixtures of different volumes of AC and Dutch Eastern Scheldt marine sediment (67% AC and 33% AC) and the others two were 100% AC or 100% marine sediment based. Each composition was duplicated. Operating these BES’s under MFC mode with solely marine sediment as the anode electron donor resulted in the creation of a bio-battery. The recharge time of such bio-battery does depend on the fuel content and its usage. The results show that by usage of marine sediment and AC electricity was generated and stored. The 100% AC and the 67% AC mixed with marine sediment electrode were over long term potentiostatic controlled at -100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl which resulted in a cathodic current and an applied voltage. After switching back to the MFC operation mode at 1000 Ω external load, the electrode turned into an anode and electricity was generated. This supports the hypothesis that external supply electrical energy was recovered via bi-directional electron transfer. With open cell voltage experiments these AC marine bioanodes showed internal supplied electric charge storage up to 100 mC at short self-charging times (10 and 60 s) and up to 2.4∘C (3,666 C/m3 anode) at long charging time (1 h). Using a hypothetical cell voltage of 0.2 V, this value represents an internal electrical storage density of 0.3 mWh/kg AC marine anode. Furthermore it was remarkable that the BES with 100% marine sediment based electrode also acted like a capacitor similar to the charge storage behaviors of the AC based bioanodes with a maximum volumetric storage of 1,373 C/m3 anode. These insights give opportunities to apply such BES systems as e.g., ex situ bio-battery to store and use electricity for off-grid purpose in remote areas.
Ivium Raw data of Charging and Discharging experiment for article "Marine sediment mixed with activated carbon allows electricity production and storage from internal and external energy sources: a new rechargeable bio-battery with bi-directional electron transfer properties"