Managing hytrosavirus infections in Glossina pallidipes colonies: Feeding regime affects the prevalence of the salivary gland hypertrophy syndrome

H.M. Kariithi, A.M.M. Abd-Alla, H.A. Mohamed, E. Lapiz, A.G. Parker, M.J.B. Vreysen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Many species of tsetse flies are infected by a virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) syndrome and the virus isolated from Glossina pallidipes (GpSGHV) has recently been sequenced. Flies with SGH have a reduced fecundity and fertility. Due to the deleterious impact of SGHV on G. pallidipes colonies, several approaches were investigated to develop a virus management strategy. Horizontal virus transmission is the major cause of the high prevalence of the GpSGHV in tsetse colonies. Implementation of a “clean feeding” regime (fresh blood offered to each set of flies so that there is only one feed per membrane), instead of the regular feeding regime (several successive feeds per membrane), was among the proposed approaches to reduce GpSGHV infections. However, due to the absence of disposable feeding equipment (feeding trays and silicone membranes), the implementation of a clean feeding approach remains economically difficult. We developed a new clean feeding approach applicable to large-scale tsetse production facilities using existing resources. The results indicate that implementing this approach is feasible and leads to a significant reduction in virus load from 109 virus copies in regular colonies to an average of 102.5 and eliminates the SGH syndrome from clean feeding colonies by28 months post implementation of this approach. The clean feeding approach also reduced the virus load from an average of 108 virus copy numbers to an average of 103 virus copies and SGH prevalence of 10% to 4% in flies fed after the clean fed colony. Taken together, these data indicate that the clean feeding approach is applicable in large-scale G. pallidipes production facilities and eliminates the deleterious effects of the virus and the SGH syndrome in these colonies.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere61875
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume8
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Fingerprint

Glossina pallidipes
Tsetse Flies
salivary glands
Salivary Glands
Viruses
hypertrophy
Hypertrophy
viruses
Infection
Glossina
infection
Cytomegalovirus
Diptera
viral load
Fertility
Membranes
Disposable Equipment
silicone
virus transmission
Silicones

Keywords

  • tsetse flies glossina
  • lop-eared rabbits
  • dna virus
  • austeni newst
  • morsitans centralis
  • living host
  • diptera
  • membrane
  • absence

Cite this

Kariithi, H.M. ; Abd-Alla, A.M.M. ; Mohamed, H.A. ; Lapiz, E. ; Parker, A.G. ; Vreysen, M.J.B. / Managing hytrosavirus infections in Glossina pallidipes colonies: Feeding regime affects the prevalence of the salivary gland hypertrophy syndrome. In: PLoS ONE. 2013 ; Vol. 8, No. 5.
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title = "Managing hytrosavirus infections in Glossina pallidipes colonies: Feeding regime affects the prevalence of the salivary gland hypertrophy syndrome",
abstract = "Many species of tsetse flies are infected by a virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) syndrome and the virus isolated from Glossina pallidipes (GpSGHV) has recently been sequenced. Flies with SGH have a reduced fecundity and fertility. Due to the deleterious impact of SGHV on G. pallidipes colonies, several approaches were investigated to develop a virus management strategy. Horizontal virus transmission is the major cause of the high prevalence of the GpSGHV in tsetse colonies. Implementation of a “clean feeding” regime (fresh blood offered to each set of flies so that there is only one feed per membrane), instead of the regular feeding regime (several successive feeds per membrane), was among the proposed approaches to reduce GpSGHV infections. However, due to the absence of disposable feeding equipment (feeding trays and silicone membranes), the implementation of a clean feeding approach remains economically difficult. We developed a new clean feeding approach applicable to large-scale tsetse production facilities using existing resources. The results indicate that implementing this approach is feasible and leads to a significant reduction in virus load from 109 virus copies in regular colonies to an average of 102.5 and eliminates the SGH syndrome from clean feeding colonies by28 months post implementation of this approach. The clean feeding approach also reduced the virus load from an average of 108 virus copy numbers to an average of 103 virus copies and SGH prevalence of 10{\%} to 4{\%} in flies fed after the clean fed colony. Taken together, these data indicate that the clean feeding approach is applicable in large-scale G. pallidipes production facilities and eliminates the deleterious effects of the virus and the SGH syndrome in these colonies.",
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Managing hytrosavirus infections in Glossina pallidipes colonies: Feeding regime affects the prevalence of the salivary gland hypertrophy syndrome. / Kariithi, H.M.; Abd-Alla, A.M.M.; Mohamed, H.A.; Lapiz, E.; Parker, A.G.; Vreysen, M.J.B.

In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 8, No. 5, e61875, 2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Managing hytrosavirus infections in Glossina pallidipes colonies: Feeding regime affects the prevalence of the salivary gland hypertrophy syndrome

AU - Kariithi, H.M.

AU - Abd-Alla, A.M.M.

AU - Mohamed, H.A.

AU - Lapiz, E.

AU - Parker, A.G.

AU - Vreysen, M.J.B.

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Many species of tsetse flies are infected by a virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) syndrome and the virus isolated from Glossina pallidipes (GpSGHV) has recently been sequenced. Flies with SGH have a reduced fecundity and fertility. Due to the deleterious impact of SGHV on G. pallidipes colonies, several approaches were investigated to develop a virus management strategy. Horizontal virus transmission is the major cause of the high prevalence of the GpSGHV in tsetse colonies. Implementation of a “clean feeding” regime (fresh blood offered to each set of flies so that there is only one feed per membrane), instead of the regular feeding regime (several successive feeds per membrane), was among the proposed approaches to reduce GpSGHV infections. However, due to the absence of disposable feeding equipment (feeding trays and silicone membranes), the implementation of a clean feeding approach remains economically difficult. We developed a new clean feeding approach applicable to large-scale tsetse production facilities using existing resources. The results indicate that implementing this approach is feasible and leads to a significant reduction in virus load from 109 virus copies in regular colonies to an average of 102.5 and eliminates the SGH syndrome from clean feeding colonies by28 months post implementation of this approach. The clean feeding approach also reduced the virus load from an average of 108 virus copy numbers to an average of 103 virus copies and SGH prevalence of 10% to 4% in flies fed after the clean fed colony. Taken together, these data indicate that the clean feeding approach is applicable in large-scale G. pallidipes production facilities and eliminates the deleterious effects of the virus and the SGH syndrome in these colonies.

AB - Many species of tsetse flies are infected by a virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) syndrome and the virus isolated from Glossina pallidipes (GpSGHV) has recently been sequenced. Flies with SGH have a reduced fecundity and fertility. Due to the deleterious impact of SGHV on G. pallidipes colonies, several approaches were investigated to develop a virus management strategy. Horizontal virus transmission is the major cause of the high prevalence of the GpSGHV in tsetse colonies. Implementation of a “clean feeding” regime (fresh blood offered to each set of flies so that there is only one feed per membrane), instead of the regular feeding regime (several successive feeds per membrane), was among the proposed approaches to reduce GpSGHV infections. However, due to the absence of disposable feeding equipment (feeding trays and silicone membranes), the implementation of a clean feeding approach remains economically difficult. We developed a new clean feeding approach applicable to large-scale tsetse production facilities using existing resources. The results indicate that implementing this approach is feasible and leads to a significant reduction in virus load from 109 virus copies in regular colonies to an average of 102.5 and eliminates the SGH syndrome from clean feeding colonies by28 months post implementation of this approach. The clean feeding approach also reduced the virus load from an average of 108 virus copy numbers to an average of 103 virus copies and SGH prevalence of 10% to 4% in flies fed after the clean fed colony. Taken together, these data indicate that the clean feeding approach is applicable in large-scale G. pallidipes production facilities and eliminates the deleterious effects of the virus and the SGH syndrome in these colonies.

KW - tsetse flies glossina

KW - lop-eared rabbits

KW - dna virus

KW - austeni newst

KW - morsitans centralis

KW - living host

KW - diptera

KW - membrane

KW - absence

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0061875

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0061875

M3 - Article

VL - 8

JO - PLoS ONE

JF - PLoS ONE

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 5

M1 - e61875

ER -