Food security is expected to face increasing challenges from climatic risks that are more and more exacerbated by climate change, especially in the developing world. This document lists some of the main capabilities that have been recently developed, especially in the area of operational agroclimatology, for an efficient use of natural resources and a better management of climatic risks. Many countries, including the developing world, now benefit from well-trained staff in the use of climate data, physical and biological information and knowledge to reduce negative climate impacts. A significant volume of data and knowledge about climate–agriculture relationships is now available and used by students, scientists, technicians, agronomists, decision-makers and farmers alike, particularly in the areas of climate characterization, land suitability and agroecological zoning, seasonal climate forecasts, drought early warning systems and operational crop forecasting systems. Climate variability has been extensively modelled, capturing important features of the climate through applied statistical procedures, agroclimatic indices derived from raw climatic data and from remote sensing. Predictions of climate at seasonal to interannual timescales are helping decision-makers in the agricultural sector to deal more effectively with the effects of climate variability. Land suitability and agroclimatic zoning have been used in many countries for agricultural planning, thanks to the availability of new and comprehensive methodologies; developments in climate, soil and remote sensing data collection and analysis; and improved applications in geographic information systems (GIS). Drought early warning systems are available worldwide at both national and international levels. These systems are helping decision-makers and farmers to take appropriate decisions to adapt to short-term climatic risks. Also, operational crop forecasting systems are now becoming available at the regional and national levels. In some developed countries, several efficient and well tested tools are now available for optimizing on-farm decisions based on the combination of crop simulation models and seasonal forecasts. However, in developing countries few tools have been developed to efficiently manage crops at the farm level to cope with climate variability and climate risks. Climate change impacts on agriculture and food security have been assessed in international studies using specific and efficient methodologies and tools. Adaptation to climate change and variability can also be facilitated through effective planning and implementation of strategies at the political level. The role of technological progress, risk transfer mechanisms and financial instruments and their easy accessibility to rural people are critical elements of climate risk management.