Management options for restoring estuarine dynamics and implications for ecosystems

A quantitative approach for the Southwest Delta in the Netherlands

Tom Ysebaert*, Dirk Jan van der Hoek, Rick Wortelboer, Jeroen W.M. Wijsman, Marijn Tangelder, Arno Nolte

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Delta Works, a series of dams and barriers constructed in the 1960's-1980's changed the estuarine landscape of the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta (SW Netherlands) into more stagnant and disengaged freshwater, brackish water or saltwater lakes. The remaining tidal systems were adapted by building a storm surge barrier in the Oosterschelde and dike reinforcement works along the Westerschelde. The Delta Works brought protection against flooding, but at the same time resulted in environmental and socio-economic problems, such as degradation of ecological quality and ecosystem functioning, disruption of fish migration routes, water and sediment quality problems.In this study we explore in an integrated, quantitative way the consequences of a number of management options for the Southwest Delta and their implications for the occurrence and distribution of aquatic and estuarine habitats, considering the mutual coherence between the water basins. Five scenarios were evaluated using a 1D hydraulic, water quality and primary production numerical model and GIS habitat mapping. Scenarios vary from small-scale interventions, such as changes in day-to-day management of hydraulic infrastructures or creation of small inlets in dams, feasible in the short term, to restoration of an open delta by removing dams and barriers, as a long term potential. We evaluate the outcomes in relation to the restoration of estuarine dynamics, as this is in policy plans proposed as a generic solution for the current ecological and environmental problems. Net water flow rates show more complex patterns when connectivity between water basins is increased and when sluice management is less strict. Estuarine transition zones and fish migration routes are partly restored, but only fully develop when basins are in open connection with each other. Area of intertidal habitats, tidal flats and tidal marshes, increases in each scenario, ranging between 7 and 83%, 1-56%, and 8-100% respectively, depending on scenario. Large scale infrastructural adaptations are needed to restore estuarine dynamics at large scale.The use of a 1D numerical model allowed to quantify the effect of different management measures for all water basins simultaneously, but also has its limitations. The model does not resolve more complex processes such as vertical mixing and morphodynamic changes. This requires expert judgment and more detailed 3D modelling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-48
JournalOcean & Coastal Management
Volume121
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2016

Fingerprint

estuarine dynamics
dams (hydrology)
Netherlands
basins
ecosystems
ecosystem
migration route
dam
fluid mechanics
basin
water
habitats
habitat
environmental economics
environmental degradation
expert opinion
hydraulics
fish
brackish water
saline water

Keywords

  • Estuarine dynamics
  • Estuarine gradients
  • Habitat mapping
  • Hydrodynamics
  • Intertidal habitat
  • Management implications
  • Management options
  • Modeling
  • Salinity

Cite this

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title = "Management options for restoring estuarine dynamics and implications for ecosystems: A quantitative approach for the Southwest Delta in the Netherlands",
abstract = "The Delta Works, a series of dams and barriers constructed in the 1960's-1980's changed the estuarine landscape of the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta (SW Netherlands) into more stagnant and disengaged freshwater, brackish water or saltwater lakes. The remaining tidal systems were adapted by building a storm surge barrier in the Oosterschelde and dike reinforcement works along the Westerschelde. The Delta Works brought protection against flooding, but at the same time resulted in environmental and socio-economic problems, such as degradation of ecological quality and ecosystem functioning, disruption of fish migration routes, water and sediment quality problems.In this study we explore in an integrated, quantitative way the consequences of a number of management options for the Southwest Delta and their implications for the occurrence and distribution of aquatic and estuarine habitats, considering the mutual coherence between the water basins. Five scenarios were evaluated using a 1D hydraulic, water quality and primary production numerical model and GIS habitat mapping. Scenarios vary from small-scale interventions, such as changes in day-to-day management of hydraulic infrastructures or creation of small inlets in dams, feasible in the short term, to restoration of an open delta by removing dams and barriers, as a long term potential. We evaluate the outcomes in relation to the restoration of estuarine dynamics, as this is in policy plans proposed as a generic solution for the current ecological and environmental problems. Net water flow rates show more complex patterns when connectivity between water basins is increased and when sluice management is less strict. Estuarine transition zones and fish migration routes are partly restored, but only fully develop when basins are in open connection with each other. Area of intertidal habitats, tidal flats and tidal marshes, increases in each scenario, ranging between 7 and 83{\%}, 1-56{\%}, and 8-100{\%} respectively, depending on scenario. Large scale infrastructural adaptations are needed to restore estuarine dynamics at large scale.The use of a 1D numerical model allowed to quantify the effect of different management measures for all water basins simultaneously, but also has its limitations. The model does not resolve more complex processes such as vertical mixing and morphodynamic changes. This requires expert judgment and more detailed 3D modelling.",
keywords = "Estuarine dynamics, Estuarine gradients, Habitat mapping, Hydrodynamics, Intertidal habitat, Management implications, Management options, Modeling, Salinity",
author = "Tom Ysebaert and {van der Hoek}, {Dirk Jan} and Rick Wortelboer and Wijsman, {Jeroen W.M.} and Marijn Tangelder and Arno Nolte",
year = "2016",
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Management options for restoring estuarine dynamics and implications for ecosystems : A quantitative approach for the Southwest Delta in the Netherlands. / Ysebaert, Tom; van der Hoek, Dirk Jan; Wortelboer, Rick; Wijsman, Jeroen W.M.; Tangelder, Marijn; Nolte, Arno.

In: Ocean & Coastal Management, Vol. 121, 01.03.2016, p. 33-48.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Management options for restoring estuarine dynamics and implications for ecosystems

T2 - A quantitative approach for the Southwest Delta in the Netherlands

AU - Ysebaert, Tom

AU - van der Hoek, Dirk Jan

AU - Wortelboer, Rick

AU - Wijsman, Jeroen W.M.

AU - Tangelder, Marijn

AU - Nolte, Arno

PY - 2016/3/1

Y1 - 2016/3/1

N2 - The Delta Works, a series of dams and barriers constructed in the 1960's-1980's changed the estuarine landscape of the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta (SW Netherlands) into more stagnant and disengaged freshwater, brackish water or saltwater lakes. The remaining tidal systems were adapted by building a storm surge barrier in the Oosterschelde and dike reinforcement works along the Westerschelde. The Delta Works brought protection against flooding, but at the same time resulted in environmental and socio-economic problems, such as degradation of ecological quality and ecosystem functioning, disruption of fish migration routes, water and sediment quality problems.In this study we explore in an integrated, quantitative way the consequences of a number of management options for the Southwest Delta and their implications for the occurrence and distribution of aquatic and estuarine habitats, considering the mutual coherence between the water basins. Five scenarios were evaluated using a 1D hydraulic, water quality and primary production numerical model and GIS habitat mapping. Scenarios vary from small-scale interventions, such as changes in day-to-day management of hydraulic infrastructures or creation of small inlets in dams, feasible in the short term, to restoration of an open delta by removing dams and barriers, as a long term potential. We evaluate the outcomes in relation to the restoration of estuarine dynamics, as this is in policy plans proposed as a generic solution for the current ecological and environmental problems. Net water flow rates show more complex patterns when connectivity between water basins is increased and when sluice management is less strict. Estuarine transition zones and fish migration routes are partly restored, but only fully develop when basins are in open connection with each other. Area of intertidal habitats, tidal flats and tidal marshes, increases in each scenario, ranging between 7 and 83%, 1-56%, and 8-100% respectively, depending on scenario. Large scale infrastructural adaptations are needed to restore estuarine dynamics at large scale.The use of a 1D numerical model allowed to quantify the effect of different management measures for all water basins simultaneously, but also has its limitations. The model does not resolve more complex processes such as vertical mixing and morphodynamic changes. This requires expert judgment and more detailed 3D modelling.

AB - The Delta Works, a series of dams and barriers constructed in the 1960's-1980's changed the estuarine landscape of the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta (SW Netherlands) into more stagnant and disengaged freshwater, brackish water or saltwater lakes. The remaining tidal systems were adapted by building a storm surge barrier in the Oosterschelde and dike reinforcement works along the Westerschelde. The Delta Works brought protection against flooding, but at the same time resulted in environmental and socio-economic problems, such as degradation of ecological quality and ecosystem functioning, disruption of fish migration routes, water and sediment quality problems.In this study we explore in an integrated, quantitative way the consequences of a number of management options for the Southwest Delta and their implications for the occurrence and distribution of aquatic and estuarine habitats, considering the mutual coherence between the water basins. Five scenarios were evaluated using a 1D hydraulic, water quality and primary production numerical model and GIS habitat mapping. Scenarios vary from small-scale interventions, such as changes in day-to-day management of hydraulic infrastructures or creation of small inlets in dams, feasible in the short term, to restoration of an open delta by removing dams and barriers, as a long term potential. We evaluate the outcomes in relation to the restoration of estuarine dynamics, as this is in policy plans proposed as a generic solution for the current ecological and environmental problems. Net water flow rates show more complex patterns when connectivity between water basins is increased and when sluice management is less strict. Estuarine transition zones and fish migration routes are partly restored, but only fully develop when basins are in open connection with each other. Area of intertidal habitats, tidal flats and tidal marshes, increases in each scenario, ranging between 7 and 83%, 1-56%, and 8-100% respectively, depending on scenario. Large scale infrastructural adaptations are needed to restore estuarine dynamics at large scale.The use of a 1D numerical model allowed to quantify the effect of different management measures for all water basins simultaneously, but also has its limitations. The model does not resolve more complex processes such as vertical mixing and morphodynamic changes. This requires expert judgment and more detailed 3D modelling.

KW - Estuarine dynamics

KW - Estuarine gradients

KW - Habitat mapping

KW - Hydrodynamics

KW - Intertidal habitat

KW - Management implications

KW - Management options

KW - Modeling

KW - Salinity

U2 - 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.11.005

DO - 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.11.005

M3 - Article

VL - 121

SP - 33

EP - 48

JO - Ocean & Coastal Management

JF - Ocean & Coastal Management

SN - 0964-5691

ER -