Malpigmentation of common sole (Solea solea) during metamorphosis is associated with differential synaptic-related gene expression

Menelaos Kavouras*, Emmanouil E. Malandrakis, Ewout Blom, Kyriaki Tsilika, Theodoros Danis, Panagiota Panagiotaki, Athanasios Exadactylos*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


In farmed flatfish, such as common sole, color disturbances are common. Dyschromia is a general term that includes the color defects on the blind and ocular sides of the fish. The purpose was to examine the difference in gene expression between normal pigmented and juveniles who present ambicoloration. The analysis was carried out with next-generation sequencing techniques and de novo assembly of the transcriptome. Transcripts that showed significant differences (FDR < 0.05) in the expression between the two groups, were related to those of zebrafish (Danio rerio), functionally identified, and classified into categories of the gene ontology. The results revealed that ambicolorated juveniles exhibit a divergent function, mainly of the central nervous system at the synaptic level, as well as the ionic channels. The close association of chromophore cells with the growth of nerve cells and the nervous system was recorded. The pathway, glutamate binding–activation of AMPA and NMDA receptors–long-term stimulation of postsynaptic potential–LTP (long term potentiation)– plasticity of synapses, appears to be affected. In addition, the development of synapses also seems to be affected by the interaction of the LGI (leucine-rich glioma inactivated) protein family with the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) ones.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2273
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2021


  • Ambicoloration
  • Ion channels
  • Next-generation sequencing
  • Pigmentation
  • Solea solea
  • Synapses


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