Malnutrition Prevalence and Nutrient Intakes of Indonesian Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies

Esthika Dewiasty*, Rina Agustina, Siti R.F. Saldi, Arvin Pramudita, Fenna Hinssen, Meutia Kumaheri, Lisette C.P.G.M. De Groot, Siti Setiati

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Malnutrition and inadequate nutrient intake are associated with functional decline, frailty, and bad clinical outcomes among community-dwelling older adults. Despite the growing proportion of the elderly population in Indonesia, data on the prevalence of malnutrition and adequacy of macronutrient and micronutrient intakes among Indonesian older adults are scattered and vary between studies. Therefore, our study aims to obtain data on malnutrition prevalence, level and distribution of nutrient intakes, and prevalence of macronutrient and micronutrient inadequacies in Indonesian community-dwelling older adults.

Methods: We carried out a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement and registered in PROSPERO. A systematic electronic database search of MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, ProQuest, HINARI, IMSEAR, GARUDA, and Indonesian Publication Index was undertaken. Additional searches were conducted in gray literature sources, hand-searching, retrospective searching, and personal communication with authors of the relevant publication. Observational studies presenting the malnutrition prevalence of habitual dietary intakes of older adults (60 years or older) were included. The risk of bias of studies was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal form. Sex-specific mean (and standard deviation) habitual macronutrient and a selection of micronutrients (calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12) intakes were extracted from each article to calculate the percentage of older people who were at risk for inadequate micronutrient intakes using a proxy of estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method, which is calculated from the national guideline of recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Prevalence of malnutrition, based on body mass index (BMI) categories and mini-nutritional assessment (MNA) criteria. and the population at risk of malnutrition were presented descriptively.

Results: Nine studies retrieved from electronic databases and gray literature were included in the pooled systematic analysis. According to BMI criteria, the underweight prevalence ranged from 8.0 to 26.6%. According to the MNA, the prevalence of malnutrition ranged from 2.1 to 14.6%, whereby the prevalence of at risk of malnutrition amounted to 18–78%. Our systematic review identified a high prevalence of nutrient inadequacies, most markedly for protein, calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12.

Conclusion: We signal a high risk of malnutrition along with poor macronutrients and micronutrients intakes among Indonesian community-dwelling older adults. These findings provide important and robust evidence on the magnitude of malnutrition and nutrient inadequacy concerns that call for appropriate nutrition, as well as public health policies and prompt intervention.
Original languageEnglish
Article number780003
JournalFrontiers in Nutrition
Publication statusPublished - 24 Feb 2022


  • community-dwelling
  • inadequacies
  • Indonesia
  • macronutrients
  • malnutrition
  • micronutrients
  • older adults


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