Projects per year
A continental-scale field experiment was conducted at 31 sites using 11 different four-species mixtures each sown at two seed abundances. The four species consisted of two grasses and two legumes, of which one was fast establishing and the other temporally persistent. We modelled the dynamics of the four-species mixtures, and tested associations with diversity effects on yield.
We found that species’ dynamics were primarily driven by differences in the relative growth rates (RGRs) of competing species, and secondarily by density dependence and climate. The temporally persistent grass species typically had the highest RGRs and hence became dominant over time. Density dependence sometimes induced stabilising processes on the dominant species and inhibited shifts to monoculture. Legumes persisted at most sites at low or medium abundances and persistence was improved at sites with higher annual minimum temperature.
Significant diversity effects were present at the majority of sites in all years and the strength of diversity effects was improved with higher legume abundance in the previous year. Observed diversity effects, when legumes had declined, may be due to (i) important effects of legumes even at low abundance, (ii) interaction between the two grass species or (iii) a store of N because of previous presence of legumes.
Synthesis. Alongside major compositional changes driven by RGR differences, diversity effects were observed at most sites, albeit at reduced strength as legumes declined. This evidence strongly supports the sowing of multi-species mixtures that include legumes over the long-standing practice of sowing grass monocultures. Careful and strategic selection of the identity of the species used in mixtures is suggested to facilitate the maintenance of species diversity and especially persistence of legumes over time, and to preserve the strength of yield increases associated with diversity.