Maize leaf-removal: A new agronomic approach to increase dry matter, flower number and seed-yield of soybean in maize soybean relay intercropping system

Muhammad Ali Raza, Ling Yang Feng, Wopke van der Werf, Nasir Iqbal, Muhammad Hayder Bin Khalid, Yuan Kai Chen, Allah Wasaya, Shoaib Ahmed, Atta Mohi Ud Din, Ahsin Khan, Saeed Ahmed, Feng Yang*, Wenyu Yang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Shading conditions adversely affect flower-number and pod-number of soybeans under maize-soybean relay-intercropping (MSR). Here we reveal that leaf-removal from maize-canopy improves the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) transmittance and dry-matter production (DMP) of soybean (especially during the co-growth phase), and compensates the maize seed-yield loss by considerably increasing soybean seed-yield. In a two-year experiment with MSR, maize-plants were subjected to different leaf-removal treatments to increase the PAR-transmittance of soybean; removal of the topmost two-leaves (R2), four-leaves (R4), six-leaves (R6), with no-removal of leaves (R0). Leaf-removal treatments improved the PAR-transmittance, photosynthetic-rate, and morphological-characteristics of soybean under MSR. At 90 days after sowing, the dry-matter of pods, and seeds was increased by 25%, and 32%, respectively under R6 than R0. Importantly, enhanced PAR-transmittance and DMP under R6 enabled soybean to initiate a greater number of flowers 182.2 plant-1 compared to 142.7 plant-1 under R0, and it also decreased the flower-abscission (by 13%, from 54.9% under R0 to 47.6% under R6). These positive responses increased the pod-number by 49% and seed-number by 28% under R6 than R0. Overall, under R6, relay-intercropped soybean produced 78% of sole-soybean seed-yield, and relay-intercropped maize produced 81% of sole-maize seed-yield and achieved the land equivalent ratio of 1.59.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13453
Number of pages1
JournalScientific Reports
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 Sep 2019

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Soybeans
Zea mays
Seeds
Radiation

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Raza, Muhammad Ali ; Feng, Ling Yang ; van der Werf, Wopke ; Iqbal, Nasir ; Khalid, Muhammad Hayder Bin ; Chen, Yuan Kai ; Wasaya, Allah ; Ahmed, Shoaib ; Ud Din, Atta Mohi ; Khan, Ahsin ; Ahmed, Saeed ; Yang, Feng ; Yang, Wenyu. / Maize leaf-removal: A new agronomic approach to increase dry matter, flower number and seed-yield of soybean in maize soybean relay intercropping system. In: Scientific Reports. 2019 ; Vol. 9, No. 1.
@article{939801c541eb4d6d9e52782d515b257c,
title = "Maize leaf-removal: A new agronomic approach to increase dry matter, flower number and seed-yield of soybean in maize soybean relay intercropping system",
abstract = "Shading conditions adversely affect flower-number and pod-number of soybeans under maize-soybean relay-intercropping (MSR). Here we reveal that leaf-removal from maize-canopy improves the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) transmittance and dry-matter production (DMP) of soybean (especially during the co-growth phase), and compensates the maize seed-yield loss by considerably increasing soybean seed-yield. In a two-year experiment with MSR, maize-plants were subjected to different leaf-removal treatments to increase the PAR-transmittance of soybean; removal of the topmost two-leaves (R2), four-leaves (R4), six-leaves (R6), with no-removal of leaves (R0). Leaf-removal treatments improved the PAR-transmittance, photosynthetic-rate, and morphological-characteristics of soybean under MSR. At 90 days after sowing, the dry-matter of pods, and seeds was increased by 25{\%}, and 32{\%}, respectively under R6 than R0. Importantly, enhanced PAR-transmittance and DMP under R6 enabled soybean to initiate a greater number of flowers 182.2 plant-1 compared to 142.7 plant-1 under R0, and it also decreased the flower-abscission (by 13{\%}, from 54.9{\%} under R0 to 47.6{\%} under R6). These positive responses increased the pod-number by 49{\%} and seed-number by 28{\%} under R6 than R0. Overall, under R6, relay-intercropped soybean produced 78{\%} of sole-soybean seed-yield, and relay-intercropped maize produced 81{\%} of sole-maize seed-yield and achieved the land equivalent ratio of 1.59.",
author = "Raza, {Muhammad Ali} and Feng, {Ling Yang} and {van der Werf}, Wopke and Nasir Iqbal and Khalid, {Muhammad Hayder Bin} and Chen, {Yuan Kai} and Allah Wasaya and Shoaib Ahmed and {Ud Din}, {Atta Mohi} and Ahsin Khan and Saeed Ahmed and Feng Yang and Wenyu Yang",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
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doi = "10.1038/s41598-019-49858-8",
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Raza, MA, Feng, LY, van der Werf, W, Iqbal, N, Khalid, MHB, Chen, YK, Wasaya, A, Ahmed, S, Ud Din, AM, Khan, A, Ahmed, S, Yang, F & Yang, W 2019, 'Maize leaf-removal: A new agronomic approach to increase dry matter, flower number and seed-yield of soybean in maize soybean relay intercropping system', Scientific Reports, vol. 9, no. 1, 13453 . https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49858-8

Maize leaf-removal: A new agronomic approach to increase dry matter, flower number and seed-yield of soybean in maize soybean relay intercropping system. / Raza, Muhammad Ali; Feng, Ling Yang; van der Werf, Wopke; Iqbal, Nasir; Khalid, Muhammad Hayder Bin; Chen, Yuan Kai; Wasaya, Allah; Ahmed, Shoaib; Ud Din, Atta Mohi; Khan, Ahsin; Ahmed, Saeed; Yang, Feng; Yang, Wenyu.

In: Scientific Reports, Vol. 9, No. 1, 13453 , 17.09.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Maize leaf-removal: A new agronomic approach to increase dry matter, flower number and seed-yield of soybean in maize soybean relay intercropping system

AU - Raza, Muhammad Ali

AU - Feng, Ling Yang

AU - van der Werf, Wopke

AU - Iqbal, Nasir

AU - Khalid, Muhammad Hayder Bin

AU - Chen, Yuan Kai

AU - Wasaya, Allah

AU - Ahmed, Shoaib

AU - Ud Din, Atta Mohi

AU - Khan, Ahsin

AU - Ahmed, Saeed

AU - Yang, Feng

AU - Yang, Wenyu

PY - 2019/9/17

Y1 - 2019/9/17

N2 - Shading conditions adversely affect flower-number and pod-number of soybeans under maize-soybean relay-intercropping (MSR). Here we reveal that leaf-removal from maize-canopy improves the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) transmittance and dry-matter production (DMP) of soybean (especially during the co-growth phase), and compensates the maize seed-yield loss by considerably increasing soybean seed-yield. In a two-year experiment with MSR, maize-plants were subjected to different leaf-removal treatments to increase the PAR-transmittance of soybean; removal of the topmost two-leaves (R2), four-leaves (R4), six-leaves (R6), with no-removal of leaves (R0). Leaf-removal treatments improved the PAR-transmittance, photosynthetic-rate, and morphological-characteristics of soybean under MSR. At 90 days after sowing, the dry-matter of pods, and seeds was increased by 25%, and 32%, respectively under R6 than R0. Importantly, enhanced PAR-transmittance and DMP under R6 enabled soybean to initiate a greater number of flowers 182.2 plant-1 compared to 142.7 plant-1 under R0, and it also decreased the flower-abscission (by 13%, from 54.9% under R0 to 47.6% under R6). These positive responses increased the pod-number by 49% and seed-number by 28% under R6 than R0. Overall, under R6, relay-intercropped soybean produced 78% of sole-soybean seed-yield, and relay-intercropped maize produced 81% of sole-maize seed-yield and achieved the land equivalent ratio of 1.59.

AB - Shading conditions adversely affect flower-number and pod-number of soybeans under maize-soybean relay-intercropping (MSR). Here we reveal that leaf-removal from maize-canopy improves the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) transmittance and dry-matter production (DMP) of soybean (especially during the co-growth phase), and compensates the maize seed-yield loss by considerably increasing soybean seed-yield. In a two-year experiment with MSR, maize-plants were subjected to different leaf-removal treatments to increase the PAR-transmittance of soybean; removal of the topmost two-leaves (R2), four-leaves (R4), six-leaves (R6), with no-removal of leaves (R0). Leaf-removal treatments improved the PAR-transmittance, photosynthetic-rate, and morphological-characteristics of soybean under MSR. At 90 days after sowing, the dry-matter of pods, and seeds was increased by 25%, and 32%, respectively under R6 than R0. Importantly, enhanced PAR-transmittance and DMP under R6 enabled soybean to initiate a greater number of flowers 182.2 plant-1 compared to 142.7 plant-1 under R0, and it also decreased the flower-abscission (by 13%, from 54.9% under R0 to 47.6% under R6). These positive responses increased the pod-number by 49% and seed-number by 28% under R6 than R0. Overall, under R6, relay-intercropped soybean produced 78% of sole-soybean seed-yield, and relay-intercropped maize produced 81% of sole-maize seed-yield and achieved the land equivalent ratio of 1.59.

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DO - 10.1038/s41598-019-49858-8

M3 - Article

VL - 9

JO - Scientific Reports

JF - Scientific Reports

SN - 2045-2322

IS - 1

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