Macroecological factors explain large-scale spatial population patterns of ancient agriculturalists

C. Xu, B. Chen, S. Abades, L. Reino, S. Teng, F.C. Ljungqvist, Z.Y.X. Huang, X. Liu

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Aim: It has been well demonstrated that the large-scale distribution patterns of numerous species are driven by similar macroecological factors. However, understanding of this topic remains limited when applied to our own species. Here we take a large-scale look at ancient agriculturalist populations over the past two millennia. The main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the patterns of agriculturalist populations were shaped by relevant macroecological factors. Location: China. Methods: Using detailed historical census data, we reconstructed spatial patterns of human population density over 13 imperial dynasties in ancient China, which was dominated by agrarian societies. We used simultaneous autoregressive models to examine the population densities of agriculturalists in relation to climatic, topographic, edaphic and hydrological variables, together with the spatial structure of a concentration of population toward national capitals. The pure and shared effects of these variables and the population-concentration structure were decomposed using a variation partitioning procedure. Results: Spatial population patterns of ancient agriculturalists can be well modelled by climate, topography, soil properties and local hydrological systems. A plausible explanation is that by influencing crop yield these environmental factors essentially drive the distribution of agriculturalists. The population-concentration structure can also explain agriculturalist patterns to a considerable extent. This structure and those environmental factors have largely shared effects in simultaneously shaping these agriculturalist patterns. Main conclusions: While humans can effectively temper environmental constraints at small spatial scales, our results demonstrate that macroecological factors underpin the spatial patterns of humans at large scales. Macroecological constraints and their relative importance are found to be similar for humans and other species, suggesting that similar mechanisms are likely to underlie these macroecological patterns. Our findings have potential implications for the assessment of future responses of humans to global environmental changes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1030-1039
JournalGlobal Ecology and Biogeography
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • climate-change
  • last millennium
  • growth dynamics
  • autocorrelation
  • collapse
  • distributions
  • abundance
  • richness
  • ecology
  • europe

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    Xu, C., Chen, B., Abades, S., Reino, L., Teng, S., Ljungqvist, F. C., Huang, Z. Y. X., & Liu, X. (2015). Macroecological factors explain large-scale spatial population patterns of ancient agriculturalists. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 24(9), 1030-1039.