Low plasma selenium concentrations, high plasma human immunodeficiency virus load and high interleukin-6 concentrations are risk factors associated with anemia in adults presenting with pulmonary tuberculosis in Zomba district, Malawi

M. van Lettow, C.E. West, J.W.M. van der Meer, F.T. Wieringa, R.D. Semba

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Although anemia is common among adults with pulmonary tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in sub-Saharan Africa, the factors contributing to its pathogenesis have not been well characterized. Objective: To characterize the antioxidant micronutrient status, interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations, and HIV load in relationship with anemia in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis. Setting: Zomba district, Malawi. Methods: Erythropoietin, IL-6, plasma HIV load, and markers of micronutrient status (hemoglobin (Hb), plasma concentrations of retinol, ¿-tocopherol, carotenoids, ferritin, zinc, and selenium) were measured in 500 adults who presented with pulmonary tuberculosis in Zomba Central Hospital, Malawi. Results: Among 370 HIV-positive and 130 HIV-negative adults, the prevalence of anemia was 88 and 77%, respectively (P=0.002), and moderate to severe anemia (Hb
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)526-532
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2005



  • acute-phase response
  • hiv-infection
  • iron-deficiency
  • erythropoietin
  • malnutrition
  • pathogenesis
  • coinfection
  • ferritin
  • uganda
  • damage

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