Longitudinal observation to assess greenhouse gas emissions from smallholder dairy farms in Indonesia: the more the merrier?

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingAbstract


The present study aimed to develop a data collection procedure to assess greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) on smallholder dairy farms in Indonesia. To do this, we first evaluated seasonal differences in GHG per kg of fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM), and second, we evaluated the number of observations within the season to assess seasonal estimate of GHG. Methods: We conducted LCA at 32 smallholder dairy farms in Lembang, Indonesia. Data were collected bimonthly from October 2017 to October 2018 through 6 farm visits (FVs) to gather information about inputs,outputs, and farm activities, such as milking, feeding, and manure management. FV1, FV2, FV3 were conducted in the rainy season, and FV4, FV5, FV6 in the dry season. The quantification of GHG was based on IPCC Tier 2 (2019). We presented GHG per unit of FPCM at each season. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to evaluate the difference in GHG between seasons. Within each season,correlations were analysed between the estimate of GHG, milk yield, GHG from different processes based on 3 observations and based on 1 or 2 observations. Results and discussion: The GHG in dry season was lower than in the rainy season (1.07 vs. 1.37 kg CO2-eq/kg FPCM). The major contributor,enteric CH4 emissions, was reduced in the dry season, and it was most likely associated with the change of feed composition that led to better digestibility. The estimated GHG based on 3observations had lower correlation with the estimated GHG based on 1 observation than with 2observations in both seasons. These results indicated that 1 observation did not capture the variation of on-farm activities related to the estimates of GHG from manure management, forage cultivation,and purchased feeds within each season. Conclusions: Our finding suggested to assess GHG from smallholder dairy farms in Indonesia at least once in each season. When multiple observations within each season are infeasible, we recommend conducting at least 2 observations to estimate GHG from manure management, forage cultivation, and purchased feeds.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication12th International Conference on Life Cycle Assessment of Food LCA 2020
Subtitle of host publicationTowards Sustainable Agri-Food Systems
PublisherGerman Institue of Food Technologies (DIL
Number of pages5
ISBN (Print)9783000676048
Publication statusPublished - 13 Oct 2020
EventLCA Food Conference 2010 -
Duration: 22 Sept 201024 Sept 2010


ConferenceLCA Food Conference 2010


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