Long-Term fluxes of carbonyl sulfide and their seasonality and interannual variability in a boreal forest

Timo Vesala, Kukka Maaria Kohonen*, Linda M.J. Kooijmans, Arnaud P. Praplan, Lenka Foltýnová, Pasi Kolari, Markku Kulmala, Jaana Bäck, David Nelson, Dan Yakir, Mark Zahniser, Ivan Mammarella

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


The seasonality and interannual variability of terrestrial carbonyl sulfide (COS) fluxes are poorly constrained. We present the first easy-To-use parameterization for the net COS forest sink based on the longest existing eddy covariance record from a boreal pine forest, covering 32 months over 5 years. Fluxes from hourly to yearly scales are reported, with the aim of revealing controlling factors and the level of interannual variability. The parameterization is based on the photosynthetically active radiation, vapor pressure deficit, air temperature, and leaf area index. Wavelet analysis of the ecosystem fluxes confirmed earlier findings from branch-level fluxes at the same site and revealed a 3ĝ€¯h lag between COS uptake and air temperature maxima at the daily scale, whereas no lag between radiation and COS flux was found. The spring recovery of the flux after the winter dormancy period was mostly governed by air temperature, and the onset of the uptake varied by 2 weeks. For the first time, we report a significant reduction in ecosystem-scale COS uptake under a large water vapor pressure deficit in summer. The maximum monthly and weekly median COS uptake varied by 26ĝ€¯% and 20ĝ€¯% between years, respectively. The timing of the latter varied by 6 weeks. The fraction of the nocturnal uptake remained below 21ĝ€¯% of the total COS uptake. We observed the growing season (April-August) average net flux of COS totaling-58.0ĝ€¯gSha-1 with 37ĝ€¯% interannual variability. The long-Term flux observations were scaled up to evergreen needleleaf forests (ENFs) in the whole boreal region using the Simple Biosphere Model Version 4 (SiB4). The observations were closely simulated using SiB4 meteorological drivers and phenology. The total COS uptake by boreal ENFs was in line with a missing COS sink at high latitudes pointed out in earlier studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2569-2584
Number of pages16
JournalAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 25 Feb 2022


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