Long-chain vitamin K2 production in Lactococcus lactis is influenced by temperature, carbon source, aeration and mode of energy metabolism

Yue Liu, Eric O. Van Bennekom, Yu Zhang, Tjakko Abee, Eddy J. Smid*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Vitamin K2 (menaquinone, MK-n) is a lipid-soluble vitamin that functions as a carboxylase co-factor for maturation of proteins involved in many vital physiological processes in humans. Notably, long-chain vitamin K2 is produced by bacteria, including some species and strains belonging to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that play important roles in food fermentation processes. This study was performed to gain insights into the natural long-chain vitamin K2 production capacity of LAB and the factors influencing vitamin K2 production during cultivation, providing a basis for biotechnological production of vitamin K2 and in situ fortification of this vitamin in food products. Results: We observed that six selected Lactococcus lactis strains produced MK-5 to MK-10, with MK-8 and MK-9 as the major MK variant. Significant diversities between strains were observed in terms of specific concentrations and titres of vitamin K2. L. lactis ssp. cremoris MG1363 was selected for more detailed studies of the impact of selected carbon sources tested under different growth conditions [i.e. static fermentation (oxygen absent, heme absent); aerobic fermentation (oxygen present, heme absent) and aerobic respiration (oxygen present, heme present)] on vitamin K2 production in M17 media. Aerobic fermentation with fructose as a carbon source resulted in the highest specific concentration of vitamin K2: 3.7-fold increase compared to static fermentation with glucose, whereas aerobic respiration with trehalose resulted in the highest titre: 5.2-fold increase compared to static fermentation with glucose. When the same strain was applied to quark fermentation, we consistently observed that altered carbon source (fructose) and aerobic cultivation of the pre-culture resulted in efficient vitamin K2 fortification in the quark product. Conclusions: With this study we demonstrate that certain LAB strains can be employed for efficient production of long-chain vitamin K2. Strain selection and optimisation of growth conditions offer a viable strategy towards natural vitamin K2 enrichment of fermented foods, and to improved biotechnological vitamin K2 production processes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number129
JournalMicrobial Cell Factories
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Aug 2019

Keywords

  • Aeration
  • Carbon source
  • Long-chain MKs
  • Menaquinone
  • Natural enrichment
  • Respiration
  • Vitamin K2

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