Clear genetic differences in the susceptibility of chickens to visceral infection by Salmonella have been observed and it has been possible to identify resistant and susceptible lines of inbred chickens. We report here the results of experiments to map directly the gene(s) controlling this trait in chickens by examining crosses between highly susceptible and highly resistant lines. In the mapping panel, a region on chicken Chromosome (Chr) 5 was found to have a large effect on resistance, and this effect was observed in three separate resource populations. Mapping of additional marker loci in the region of the resistance gene further localized it to a region of approximately 2 cM, close to the genes for creatine kinase (CKB) and dynein (DNCH1). This region shows conserved synteny with telomeric regions of human Chr 14 and mouse Chr 12. On the basis of this conserved synteny, this resistance gene seems unlikely to correspond to the previously identified salmonellosis resistance genes Lps (located on mouse Chr 4) or Nos2 (located on mouse Chr 11). There was no association between Nramp1 and resistance in these crosses, although this gene was shown to contribute to resistance in other crosses. The homologous human and mouse regions at present contain no likely candidate genes for this trait. Thus this appears to be a novel resistance gene, which we designate SAL1.