Livestock-associated MRSA in household members of pig farmers

Transmission and dynamics of carriage, a prospective cohort study

B.A.G.L. Van Cleef, B.H.B. Van Benthem, E.J.M. Verkade, M.M.L. Van Rijen, M.F.Q. Kluytmans-Van Den Bergh, Haitske Graveland, Thijs Bosch, K.M.H.W. Verstappen, J.A. Wagenaar, M.E.H. Bos, Dick Heederik, J.A.J.W. Kluytmans

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Abstract

This prospective cohort study describes carriage of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in household members from 49 farrowing pig farms in the Netherlands (2010-2011). Of 171 household members, 4% were persistent MRSA nasal carriers, and the MRSA prevalence on any given sampling moment was 10% (range 7-11%). Working in the stables (of which 98% was MRSA-positive, prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.11 per 10 hours), working with sows (PR=1.97), and living with an MRSA-positive pig farmer (PR=4.63) were significant determinants for MRSA carriage. Significant protective factors were carriage of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (PR=0.50), and wearing a facemask when working in the stables (37% decreased prevalence). All MRSA strains during the study period were known livestock-associated types. The bacteriophage φ3 was not found in household members. Transmission from pigs and the environment appeared to be important determinants; human-to-human transmission could not sufficiently be differentiated. Wearing a facemask when working in the stables and carriage of MSSA are potential interventional targets.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0127190
Number of pages13
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume10
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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Methicillin
Livestock
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
cohort studies
Farms
households
Cohort Studies
Swine
livestock
Prospective Studies
farmers
swine
Bacteriophages
methicillin
Staphylococcus aureus
Sampling
work schedules
farrowing
bacteriophages
sows

Cite this

Van Cleef, B. A. G. L., Van Benthem, B. H. B., Verkade, E. J. M., Van Rijen, M. M. L., Kluytmans-Van Den Bergh, M. F. Q., Graveland, H., ... Kluytmans, J. A. J. W. (2015). Livestock-associated MRSA in household members of pig farmers: Transmission and dynamics of carriage, a prospective cohort study. PLoS ONE, 10(5), [e0127190]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127190
Van Cleef, B.A.G.L. ; Van Benthem, B.H.B. ; Verkade, E.J.M. ; Van Rijen, M.M.L. ; Kluytmans-Van Den Bergh, M.F.Q. ; Graveland, Haitske ; Bosch, Thijs ; Verstappen, K.M.H.W. ; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Bos, M.E.H. ; Heederik, Dick ; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W. / Livestock-associated MRSA in household members of pig farmers : Transmission and dynamics of carriage, a prospective cohort study. In: PLoS ONE. 2015 ; Vol. 10, No. 5.
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title = "Livestock-associated MRSA in household members of pig farmers: Transmission and dynamics of carriage, a prospective cohort study",
abstract = "This prospective cohort study describes carriage of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in household members from 49 farrowing pig farms in the Netherlands (2010-2011). Of 171 household members, 4{\%} were persistent MRSA nasal carriers, and the MRSA prevalence on any given sampling moment was 10{\%} (range 7-11{\%}). Working in the stables (of which 98{\%} was MRSA-positive, prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.11 per 10 hours), working with sows (PR=1.97), and living with an MRSA-positive pig farmer (PR=4.63) were significant determinants for MRSA carriage. Significant protective factors were carriage of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (PR=0.50), and wearing a facemask when working in the stables (37{\%} decreased prevalence). All MRSA strains during the study period were known livestock-associated types. The bacteriophage φ3 was not found in household members. Transmission from pigs and the environment appeared to be important determinants; human-to-human transmission could not sufficiently be differentiated. Wearing a facemask when working in the stables and carriage of MSSA are potential interventional targets.",
author = "{Van Cleef}, B.A.G.L. and {Van Benthem}, B.H.B. and E.J.M. Verkade and {Van Rijen}, M.M.L. and {Kluytmans-Van Den Bergh}, M.F.Q. and Haitske Graveland and Thijs Bosch and K.M.H.W. Verstappen and J.A. Wagenaar and M.E.H. Bos and Dick Heederik and J.A.J.W. Kluytmans",
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Van Cleef, BAGL, Van Benthem, BHB, Verkade, EJM, Van Rijen, MML, Kluytmans-Van Den Bergh, MFQ, Graveland, H, Bosch, T, Verstappen, KMHW, Wagenaar, JA, Bos, MEH, Heederik, D & Kluytmans, JAJW 2015, 'Livestock-associated MRSA in household members of pig farmers: Transmission and dynamics of carriage, a prospective cohort study', PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 5, e0127190. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127190

Livestock-associated MRSA in household members of pig farmers : Transmission and dynamics of carriage, a prospective cohort study. / Van Cleef, B.A.G.L.; Van Benthem, B.H.B.; Verkade, E.J.M.; Van Rijen, M.M.L.; Kluytmans-Van Den Bergh, M.F.Q.; Graveland, Haitske; Bosch, Thijs; Verstappen, K.M.H.W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Bos, M.E.H.; Heederik, Dick; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.

In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 10, No. 5, e0127190, 2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Livestock-associated MRSA in household members of pig farmers

T2 - Transmission and dynamics of carriage, a prospective cohort study

AU - Van Cleef, B.A.G.L.

AU - Van Benthem, B.H.B.

AU - Verkade, E.J.M.

AU - Van Rijen, M.M.L.

AU - Kluytmans-Van Den Bergh, M.F.Q.

AU - Graveland, Haitske

AU - Bosch, Thijs

AU - Verstappen, K.M.H.W.

AU - Wagenaar, J.A.

AU - Bos, M.E.H.

AU - Heederik, Dick

AU - Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - This prospective cohort study describes carriage of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in household members from 49 farrowing pig farms in the Netherlands (2010-2011). Of 171 household members, 4% were persistent MRSA nasal carriers, and the MRSA prevalence on any given sampling moment was 10% (range 7-11%). Working in the stables (of which 98% was MRSA-positive, prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.11 per 10 hours), working with sows (PR=1.97), and living with an MRSA-positive pig farmer (PR=4.63) were significant determinants for MRSA carriage. Significant protective factors were carriage of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (PR=0.50), and wearing a facemask when working in the stables (37% decreased prevalence). All MRSA strains during the study period were known livestock-associated types. The bacteriophage φ3 was not found in household members. Transmission from pigs and the environment appeared to be important determinants; human-to-human transmission could not sufficiently be differentiated. Wearing a facemask when working in the stables and carriage of MSSA are potential interventional targets.

AB - This prospective cohort study describes carriage of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in household members from 49 farrowing pig farms in the Netherlands (2010-2011). Of 171 household members, 4% were persistent MRSA nasal carriers, and the MRSA prevalence on any given sampling moment was 10% (range 7-11%). Working in the stables (of which 98% was MRSA-positive, prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.11 per 10 hours), working with sows (PR=1.97), and living with an MRSA-positive pig farmer (PR=4.63) were significant determinants for MRSA carriage. Significant protective factors were carriage of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (PR=0.50), and wearing a facemask when working in the stables (37% decreased prevalence). All MRSA strains during the study period were known livestock-associated types. The bacteriophage φ3 was not found in household members. Transmission from pigs and the environment appeared to be important determinants; human-to-human transmission could not sufficiently be differentiated. Wearing a facemask when working in the stables and carriage of MSSA are potential interventional targets.

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0127190

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0127190

M3 - Article

VL - 10

JO - PLoS ONE

JF - PLoS ONE

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 5

M1 - e0127190

ER -

Van Cleef BAGL, Van Benthem BHB, Verkade EJM, Van Rijen MML, Kluytmans-Van Den Bergh MFQ, Graveland H et al. Livestock-associated MRSA in household members of pig farmers: Transmission and dynamics of carriage, a prospective cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(5). e0127190. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127190