Lighting systems and strategies compared in an optimally controlled greenhouse

Wouter J.P. Kuijpers*, David Katzin, Simon van Mourik, Duarte J. Antunes, Silke Hemming, Marinus J.G. van de Molengraft

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


LED lighting is appointed as the successor of HPS lighting in greenhouses since it can lead to a more sustainable cultivation, i.e. it converts electrical energy into photosynthetically active radiation more efficiently. To quantify the effect of this more efficient conversion within the operation of the greenhouse system, an optimal controller is proposed to generate optimal control trajectories for the controllable inputs of the greenhouse. The optimal controller makes use of an economic objective function, i.e. the difference between income (yield×productprice) and cost of resources (resourceuse×cost). The performance of this optimally controlled greenhouse system is compared with respect to the state-of-the-practice. Simulation experiments suggest optimal control can increase the economic objective by 10% to 65.14€.m−2 compared to 58.96€.m−2 for the state-of-the-practice, for tomatoes cultivated in a Dutch weather conditions. The model of the optimally controlled greenhouse is used to compare the performance of different lighting systems, i.e. no lighting, HPS lighting and LED lighting. An increase of 9% in the operational return is observed for LED lighting compared to HPS lighting. The electricity that is saved due to the more energy-efficient conversion in the LED lighting results in a 30% decrease in carbon footprint when comparing a greenhouse with LED lighting to a greenhouse with HPS lighting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)195-216
JournalBiosystems Engineering
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021


  • Artificial lighting
  • Carbon footprint
  • Greenhouse environmental control
  • LED
  • Optimal control


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