Levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs in butter from Turkey and estimated dietary intake from dairy products

Y. Ucar, W.A. Traag, J. Immerzeel, C. van de Kraats, M.K. van der Lee, L.A.P. Hoogenboom, G. van der Weg, G.C. Cakirogullari, B. Oymael, D. Kilic

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    9 Citations (Scopus)


    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like (indicator) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) were monitored in butterfat obtained from 18 different areas in Turkey, both rural and industrial. The results obtained both at RIKILT in the Netherlands and in a food control laboratory in Turkey for PCDD/Fs and PCBs were in good agreement. The sum of PCDD/Fs+dl-PCBs, total indicator PCBs and PBDEs were in the range 0.26-3.82 pg TEQ g-1 fat, 0.20-3.04 ng g-1 fat and 0.18-5.00 ng g-1 fat, respectively. Despite the very low levels measured, slightly elevated PCDD/F and PCB levels were found in Izmir-Aliaa, Kocaeli, Denizli, and Zonguldak. The only result exceeding the EU action level was the dl-PCB concentration in Izmir-Aliaa. Ratios of PCDD/Fs and PCBs indicate that contamination in the elevated areas originated from different sources. High BDE 209 levels were detected in Mersin and Bursa. For the 18 regions analysed, the average total daily intake of total TEQ (dioxins and dl-PCBs) from butterfat was 0.09 pg TEQ(1998) (0.08 pg TEQ(2005)) kg-1 body weight, while those for indicator PCBs and PBDEs were 58.8 and 35.1 pg kg-1 body weight, respectively. The average total daily intake from dairy products were 0.26 pg TEQ(1998) (0.20 pg TEQ(2005)), 183 and 103 pg kg-1 body weight, respectively.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)141-151
    JournalFood Additives & Contaminants Part B-Surveillance
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2011


    • polybrominated diphenyl ethers
    • human exposure
    • market-basket
    • dioxins
    • netherlands
    • foodstuffs
    • food
    • sea
    • fat

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