Leaching of Metals from Steel Slag and Their Ecological Effects on a Marine Ecosystem: Validating Field Data with Mesocosm Observations

Edwin M. Foekema*, Jacqueline E. Tamis, Ainhoa Blanco, Babeth van der Weide, Cor Sonneveld, Frank Kleissen, Martine J. van den Heuvel-Greve

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Steel slag is being used worldwide for a variety of applications, among which is underwater dyke reinforcement. In the present study the leaching and bioaccumulation of 18 inorganic compounds from basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag were monitored in marine experimental ecosystems (mesocosms) for 12 wk. Triplicate mesocosms were installed at 2 refreshment rates, one reflecting the situation in the Oosterschelde estuary where BOF steel slag was applied and the other at a 35 times lower rate. Vanadium in both water and biota turned out to be the best tracer for the presence of BOF steel slag in the mesocosms. The mesocosm data helped to interpret the results of a 4-yr field sampling program in the Oosterschelde estuary where no elevated levels of vanadium in water or biota were found near locations where steel slag was applied. Also, no ecological impact could be established in the field, which was in line with the observations in the mesocosms. The present study shows the added value of a tailor-made mesocosm study for realistic risk assessment and provides support for applying this tool as a basis for designing efficient field monitoring programs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2021;00:1–11.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2499-2509
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Volume40
Issue number9
Early online date2 Jun 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Benthic macroinvertebrates
  • Field monitoring
  • Heavy metals
  • Metal accumulation
  • Metal bioavailability
  • Steel slag
  • Vanadium
  • Water quality

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Leaching of Metals from Steel Slag and Their Ecological Effects on a Marine Ecosystem: Validating Field Data with Mesocosm Observations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this