Large-deformation properties of wheat dough in uni- and biaxial extension. Part II. Gluten dough

E.L. Sliwinski, M. van der Hoef, P. Kolster, T. van Vliet

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22 Citations (Scopus)


Glutens were isolated from flour of three European wheat cultivars which perform differently in cereal products. The rheological and fracture properties of gluten-water doughs were determined in uniaxial and biaxial extension at large deformations and small angle sinusoidal oscillation tests and compared with the mechanical properties of the parental flour doughs. At 25 °C the linear region was in the same range as that of flour dough, while at a higher temperature (45 °C) the linear region was more than an order of magnitude higher. At 45 °C the storage modulus and tan were lower than at 25 °C. Variation in moduli between cultivars was much more pronounced for gluten than for flour doughs. Similarly to flour dough in both uniaxial and biaxial extension the stress () increased more than proportionally with the strain, a phenomenon called strain hardening. The stress at a set strain and strain hardening depended much more strongly on the type of deformation for gluten than for flour dough: was higher in biaxial extension for gluten than for flour dough, but was much higher in uniaxial extension. This indicates that orientational effects in elongational flow are of even larger importance for the mechanical properties of gluten than of flour dough. It is likely that it is the glutenin fraction that, because of its large size, confers these direction dependent properties to gluten and flour doughs. Fracture stresses were much higher for gluten than for flour dough, while fracture strains were in the same range or higher. For gluten dough fracture strains increased less strongly with increasing strain rate than for flour dough. Glutens exhibiting a higher stress at a certain strain had a smaller fracture strain. Our findings confirm the conviction that the large deformation properties of flour dough are mainly governed by the gluten fraction. However, there are also differences. Compared to flour dough gluten dough exhibits (i) a stronger strain hardening, (ii) a larger difference in between uniaxial and biaxial extension and (iii) a smaller strain rate dependency of the fracture strain.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)321-332
JournalRheologica Acta
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2004


  • rheological properties
  • flour doughs
  • rupture properties
  • subfractions
  • protein
  • breadmaking
  • elasticity
  • viscosity
  • behavior
  • quality


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