Land exchange can be a major factor driving land-use change in regions with high pressure on land, but is generally not incorporated in land-use change models. Here we present an agent-based model to simulate land-use change arising from land exchange between multiple agent types representing farmers, nature organizations, and estate owners.
Bakker, M. M., Alam, S. J., van Dijk, J., & Rounsevell, M. D. A. (2015). Land-use change arising from rural land exchange: an agent-based simulation model. Landscape Ecology, 30, 273-286. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-014-0116-x