Kinetic modelling of Amadori N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-glycine degradation pathways. Part I - Reaction mechanism

S.I.F.S. Martins, A.T.M. Marcelis, M.A.J.S. van Boekel

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The fate of the Amadori compound N-(1-deoxy--fructos-1-yl)-glycine (DFG) was studied in aqueous model systems as a function of pH and temperature. The samples were heated at 100 and 120 °C with initial reaction pH of 5.5 and 6.8. Special attention was paid to the formation of the free amino acid, glycine; parent sugars, glucose and mannose; organic acids, formic and acetic acid and -dicarbonyls, 1- and 3-deoxyosone together with methylglyoxal. For the studied conditions decreasing the initial reaction pH with 1.3 units or increasing the temperature with 20 °C has the same effect on the DFG degradation as well as on glycine formation. An increase in pH seems to favour the formation of 1-deoxyosone. The lower amount found comparatively to 3-deoxyosone, in all studied systems, seems to be related with the higher reactivity of 1-deoxyosone. Independently of the taken pathway, enolization or retro-aldolization, DFG degradation is accompanied by amino acid release. Together with glycine, acetic acid was the main end product formed. Values of 83 and 55 mol% were obtained, respectively. The rate of parent sugars formation increased with pH, but the type of sugar formed also changed with pH. Mannose was preferably formed at pH 5.5 whereas at pH 6.8 the opposite was observed, that is, glucose was formed in higher amounts than mannose. Also, independently of the temperature, at higher pH fructose was also detected. pH, more than temperature, had an influence on the reaction products formed. The initial steps for a complete multiresponse kinetic analysis have been discussed. Based on the established reaction network a kinetic model will be proposed and evaluated by multiresponse kinetic modelling in a subsequent paper
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1651-1663
JournalCarbohydrate Research : an international journal
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 2003


  • maillard products
  • amino-acids
  • d-glucose
  • decomposition
  • systems
  • glycine

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