Keeping crispr in check: diverse mechanisms of phage-encoded anti-crisprs

Despoina Trasanidou, Ana Sousa Gerós, Prarthana Mohanraju, Anna Cornelia Nieuwenweg, Franklin L. Nobrega, Raymond H.J. Staals

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

CRISPR-Cas represents the only adaptive immune system of prokaryotes known to date. These immune systems are widespread among bacteria and archaea, and provide protection against invasion of mobile genetic elements, such as bacteriophages and plasmids. As a result of the arms-race between phages and their prokaryotic hosts, phages have evolved inhibitors known as anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins to evade CRISPR immunity. In the recent years, several Acr proteins have been described in both temperate and virulent phages targeting diverse CRISPR-Cas systems. Here, we describe the strategies of Acr discovery and the multiple molecular mechanisms by which these proteins operate to inhibit CRISPR immunity. We discuss the biological relevance of Acr proteins and speculate on the implications of their activity for the development of improved CRISPR-based research and biotechnological tools.
LanguageEnglish
JournalFEMS Microbiology Letters
Volume366
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2019

Fingerprint

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats
Bacteriophages
CRISPR-Cas Systems
Immune System
Immunity
Proteins
Interspersed Repetitive Sequences
Archaea
Plasmids
Bacteria

Keywords

  • crispr-cas
  • anti-crispr
  • genome editing
  • phage

Cite this

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title = "Keeping crispr in check: diverse mechanisms of phage-encoded anti-crisprs",
abstract = "CRISPR-Cas represents the only adaptive immune system of prokaryotes known to date. These immune systems are widespread among bacteria and archaea, and provide protection against invasion of mobile genetic elements, such as bacteriophages and plasmids. As a result of the arms-race between phages and their prokaryotic hosts, phages have evolved inhibitors known as anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins to evade CRISPR immunity. In the recent years, several Acr proteins have been described in both temperate and virulent phages targeting diverse CRISPR-Cas systems. Here, we describe the strategies of Acr discovery and the multiple molecular mechanisms by which these proteins operate to inhibit CRISPR immunity. We discuss the biological relevance of Acr proteins and speculate on the implications of their activity for the development of improved CRISPR-based research and biotechnological tools.",
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Keeping crispr in check: diverse mechanisms of phage-encoded anti-crisprs. / Trasanidou, Despoina; Gerós, Ana Sousa; Mohanraju, Prarthana; Nieuwenweg, Anna Cornelia; Nobrega, Franklin L.; Staals, Raymond H.J.

In: FEMS Microbiology Letters, Vol. 366, No. 9, 11.05.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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AU - Trasanidou, Despoina

AU - Gerós, Ana Sousa

AU - Mohanraju, Prarthana

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AU - Nobrega, Franklin L.

AU - Staals, Raymond H.J.

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AB - CRISPR-Cas represents the only adaptive immune system of prokaryotes known to date. These immune systems are widespread among bacteria and archaea, and provide protection against invasion of mobile genetic elements, such as bacteriophages and plasmids. As a result of the arms-race between phages and their prokaryotic hosts, phages have evolved inhibitors known as anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins to evade CRISPR immunity. In the recent years, several Acr proteins have been described in both temperate and virulent phages targeting diverse CRISPR-Cas systems. Here, we describe the strategies of Acr discovery and the multiple molecular mechanisms by which these proteins operate to inhibit CRISPR immunity. We discuss the biological relevance of Acr proteins and speculate on the implications of their activity for the development of improved CRISPR-based research and biotechnological tools.

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