Detailed karyotypes of Lilium longiflorum and L. rubellum were constructed on the basis of chromosome arm lengths, C-banding, AgNO3 staining, and PI-DAPI banding, together with fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with the 5S and 45S rDNA sequences as probes. The C-banding patterns that were obtained with the standard BSG technique revealed only few minor bands on heterologous positions of the L. longiflorum and L. rubellum chromosomes. FISH of the 5S and 45S rDNA probes on L. longiflorum metaphase complements showed overlapping signals at proximal positions of the short arms of chromosomes 4 and 7, a single 5S rDNA signal on the secondary constriction of chromosome 3, and one 45S rDNA signal adjacent to the 5S rDNA signal on the subdistal part of the long arm of chromosome 3. In L. rubellum, we observed co-localisation of the 5S and 45S rDNA sequences on the short arm of chromosomes 2 and 4 and on the long arms of chromosomes 2 and 3, and two adjacent bands on chromosome 12. Silver staining (Ag-NOR) of the nucleoli and NORs in L. longiflorum and L. rubellum yielded a highly variable number of signals in interphase nuclei and only a few faint silver deposits on the NORs of mitotic metaphase chromosomes. In preparations stained with PI and DAPI, we observed both red- and blue-fluorescing bands at different positions on the L. longiflorum and L. rubellum chromosomes. The red-fluorescing or so-called reverse PI-DAPI bands always coincided with rDNA sites, whereas the blue-fluorescing DAPI bands corresponded to C-bands. Based on these techniques, we could identify most of chromosomes of the L. longiflorum and L. rubellum karyotypes.
- ribosomal-rna genes
- nuclear-dna amounts