Jammed Emulsions with Adhesive Pea Protein Particles for Elastoplastic Edible 3D Printed Materials

Simha Sridharan, Marcel B.J. Meinders, Leonard M. Sagis, Johannes H. Bitter, Constantinos V. Nikiforidis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


3D printed materials are of great relevance to produce medicinal scaffolds and specialized foods. An approach to forming 3D printable materials is to use jammed oil droplets. Jammed oil droplets are highly viscous and can be extruded through the nozzle of a 3D printer, while after chemical cross-linking they acquire a self-standing ability. However, the molecules currently used to stabilize and cross-link the oil droplets have questionable biocompatibility. Therefore, this study aims to produce a 3D printable jammed emulsion using pea proteins. This jammed oil-in-water emulsion is remarkably stable and viscoelastic enough to be extruded through the printer nozzle. Adhesive pea protein particles formed by pH adjustment act as physical cross-links between the oil droplets, forming a scaffold with elastoplastic rheological properties that flows above critical stress while, without any additional treatment, exhibits the required self-standing properties for 3D printing. By understanding the properties of pea proteins and their behavior in bulk and on interfaces, pea protein-based 3D printable material is created for the first time.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2101749
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number45
Early online date11 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • 3D printing
  • edible materials
  • jammed emulsions
  • pea proteins
  • plant proteins


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