Is aging raw cattle urine efficient for sampling Anopheles arabiensis Patton?

A.M. Mahande, B.J. Mwang'onde, S. Msangi, E. Kimaro, L.L. Mnyone, H.D. Mazigo, M.J. Mahande, E.J. Kweka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Background: To ensure sustainable routine surveillance of mosquito vectors, simple, effective and ethically acceptable tools are required. As a part of that, we evaluated the efficiency of resting boxes baited with fresh and aging cattle urine for indoor and outdoor sampling of An. arabiensis in the lower Moshi rice irrigation schemes. Methods: A cattle urine treatment and re-treatment schedule was used, including a box with a piece of cloth retreated with urine daily, and once after 3 and 7 day. Resting box with piece of black cloth not treated with urine was used as a control. Each treatment was made in pair for indoor and outdoor sampling. A 4 by 4 Latin square design was used to achieve equal rotation of each of the four treatments across the experimental houses. Sampling was done over a period of 6 months, once per week. Results: A total of 7871 mosquitoes were collected throughout the study period. 49.8% of the mosquitoes were collected from resting box treated with urine daily; 21.6% and 20.0% were from boxes treated 3 and 7 days respectively. Only 8.6% were from untreated resting box (control). The proportion collected indoors was similar to 2 folds greater than the outdoor. Of all mosquitoes, 12.3% were unfed, 4.1% full fed, 34.2% semi-gravid and 49.4% gravid. Conclusion: Fresh and decaying cattle urine odour baited resting boxes offer an alternative tool for sampling particularly semi-gravid and gravid An. arabiensis. Evaluation in low density seasons of An. arabiensis in different ecological settings remains necessary. This sampling method may be standardized for replacing human landing catch.
Original languageEnglish
Article number172
JournalBmc Infectious Diseases
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • malaria transmission
  • glossina-pallidipes
  • western kenya
  • northern tanzania
  • gambiae complex
  • vector control
  • diptera
  • culicidae
  • behavior
  • tsetse

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