Invited review: Nitrogen in ruminant nutrition: A review of measurement techniques

A.N. Hristov, A. Bannink, L.A. Crompton, P. Huhtanen, M. Kreuzer, M. McGee, P. Nozière, C.K. Reynolds, A.R. Bayat, D.R. Yáñez-Ruiz, J. Dijkstra, E. Kebreab, A. Schwarm, K.J. Shingfield, Z. Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Nitrogen is a component of essential nutrients critical for the productivity of ruminants. If excreted in excess, N is also an important environmental pollutant contributing to acid deposition, eutrophication, human respiratory problems, and climate change. The complex microbial metabolic activity in the rumen and the effect on subsequent processes in the intestines and body tissues make the study of N metabolism in ruminants challenging compared with nonruminants. Therefore, using accurate and precise measurement techniques is imperative for obtaining reliable experimental results on N utilization by ruminants and evaluating the environmental impacts of N emission mitigation techniques. Changeover design experiments are as suitable as continuous ones for studying protein metabolism in ruminant animals, except when changes in body weight or carryover effects due to treatment are expected. Adaptation following a dietary change should be allowed for at least 2 (preferably 3) wk, and extended adaptation periods may be required if body pools can temporarily supply the nutrients studied. Dietary protein degradability in the rumen and intestines are feed characteristics determining the primary AA available to the host animal. They can be estimated using in situ, in vitro, or in vivo techniques with each having inherent advantages and disadvantages. Accurate, precise, and inexpensive laboratory assays for feed protein availability are still needed. Techniques used for direct determination of rumen microbial protein synthesis are laborious and expensive, and data variability can be unacceptably large; indirect approaches have not shown the level of accuracy required for widespread adoption. Techniques for studying postruminal digestion and absorption of nitrogenous compounds, urea recycling, and mammary AA metabolism are also laborious, expensive (especially the methods that use isotopes), and results can be variable, especially the methods based on measurements of digesta or blood flow. Volatile loss of N from feces and particularly urine can be substantial during collection, processing, and analysis of excreta, compromising the accuracy of measurements of total-tract N digestion and body N balance. In studying ruminant N metabolism, nutritionists should consider the longer term fate of manure N as well. Various techniques used to determine the effects of animal nutrition on total N, ammonia- or nitrous oxide-emitting potentials, as well as plant fertilizer value, of manure are available. Overall, methods to study ruminant N metabolism have been developed over 150 yr of animal nutrition research, but many of them are laborious and impractical for application on a large number of animals. The increasing environmental concerns associated with livestock production systems necessitate more accurate and reliable methods to determine manure N emissions in the context of feed composition and ruminant N metabolism.

LanguageEnglish
Pages5811-5852
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Volume102
Issue number7
Early online date25 Apr 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019

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ruminant nutrition
Ruminants
Nitrogen
ruminants
nitrogen
Manure
Rumen
metabolism
animal manures
Intestines
rumen
methodology
Digestion
Eutrophication
Food
Environmental Pollutants
Body Weight Changes
Proteins
Nutritionists
Dietary Proteins

Keywords

  • environment
  • manure
  • metabolism
  • nitrogen
  • ruminant animal
  • technique

Cite this

Hristov, A. N., Bannink, A., Crompton, L. A., Huhtanen, P., Kreuzer, M., McGee, M., ... Yu, Z. (2019). Invited review: Nitrogen in ruminant nutrition: A review of measurement techniques. Journal of Dairy Science, 102(7), 5811-5852. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2018-15829
Hristov, A.N. ; Bannink, A. ; Crompton, L.A. ; Huhtanen, P. ; Kreuzer, M. ; McGee, M. ; Nozière, P. ; Reynolds, C.K. ; Bayat, A.R. ; Yáñez-Ruiz, D.R. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Kebreab, E. ; Schwarm, A. ; Shingfield, K.J. ; Yu, Z. / Invited review: Nitrogen in ruminant nutrition: A review of measurement techniques. In: Journal of Dairy Science. 2019 ; Vol. 102, No. 7. pp. 5811-5852.
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Hristov, AN, Bannink, A, Crompton, LA, Huhtanen, P, Kreuzer, M, McGee, M, Nozière, P, Reynolds, CK, Bayat, AR, Yáñez-Ruiz, DR, Dijkstra, J, Kebreab, E, Schwarm, A, Shingfield, KJ & Yu, Z 2019, 'Invited review: Nitrogen in ruminant nutrition: A review of measurement techniques', Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 102, no. 7, pp. 5811-5852. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2018-15829

Invited review: Nitrogen in ruminant nutrition: A review of measurement techniques. / Hristov, A.N.; Bannink, A.; Crompton, L.A.; Huhtanen, P.; Kreuzer, M.; McGee, M.; Nozière, P.; Reynolds, C.K.; Bayat, A.R.; Yáñez-Ruiz, D.R.; Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.; Schwarm, A.; Shingfield, K.J.; Yu, Z.

In: Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 102, No. 7, 07.2019, p. 5811-5852.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Invited review: Nitrogen in ruminant nutrition: A review of measurement techniques

AU - Hristov, A.N.

AU - Bannink, A.

AU - Crompton, L.A.

AU - Huhtanen, P.

AU - Kreuzer, M.

AU - McGee, M.

AU - Nozière, P.

AU - Reynolds, C.K.

AU - Bayat, A.R.

AU - Yáñez-Ruiz, D.R.

AU - Dijkstra, J.

AU - Kebreab, E.

AU - Schwarm, A.

AU - Shingfield, K.J.

AU - Yu, Z.

PY - 2019/7

Y1 - 2019/7

N2 - Nitrogen is a component of essential nutrients critical for the productivity of ruminants. If excreted in excess, N is also an important environmental pollutant contributing to acid deposition, eutrophication, human respiratory problems, and climate change. The complex microbial metabolic activity in the rumen and the effect on subsequent processes in the intestines and body tissues make the study of N metabolism in ruminants challenging compared with nonruminants. Therefore, using accurate and precise measurement techniques is imperative for obtaining reliable experimental results on N utilization by ruminants and evaluating the environmental impacts of N emission mitigation techniques. Changeover design experiments are as suitable as continuous ones for studying protein metabolism in ruminant animals, except when changes in body weight or carryover effects due to treatment are expected. Adaptation following a dietary change should be allowed for at least 2 (preferably 3) wk, and extended adaptation periods may be required if body pools can temporarily supply the nutrients studied. Dietary protein degradability in the rumen and intestines are feed characteristics determining the primary AA available to the host animal. They can be estimated using in situ, in vitro, or in vivo techniques with each having inherent advantages and disadvantages. Accurate, precise, and inexpensive laboratory assays for feed protein availability are still needed. Techniques used for direct determination of rumen microbial protein synthesis are laborious and expensive, and data variability can be unacceptably large; indirect approaches have not shown the level of accuracy required for widespread adoption. Techniques for studying postruminal digestion and absorption of nitrogenous compounds, urea recycling, and mammary AA metabolism are also laborious, expensive (especially the methods that use isotopes), and results can be variable, especially the methods based on measurements of digesta or blood flow. Volatile loss of N from feces and particularly urine can be substantial during collection, processing, and analysis of excreta, compromising the accuracy of measurements of total-tract N digestion and body N balance. In studying ruminant N metabolism, nutritionists should consider the longer term fate of manure N as well. Various techniques used to determine the effects of animal nutrition on total N, ammonia- or nitrous oxide-emitting potentials, as well as plant fertilizer value, of manure are available. Overall, methods to study ruminant N metabolism have been developed over 150 yr of animal nutrition research, but many of them are laborious and impractical for application on a large number of animals. The increasing environmental concerns associated with livestock production systems necessitate more accurate and reliable methods to determine manure N emissions in the context of feed composition and ruminant N metabolism.

AB - Nitrogen is a component of essential nutrients critical for the productivity of ruminants. If excreted in excess, N is also an important environmental pollutant contributing to acid deposition, eutrophication, human respiratory problems, and climate change. The complex microbial metabolic activity in the rumen and the effect on subsequent processes in the intestines and body tissues make the study of N metabolism in ruminants challenging compared with nonruminants. Therefore, using accurate and precise measurement techniques is imperative for obtaining reliable experimental results on N utilization by ruminants and evaluating the environmental impacts of N emission mitigation techniques. Changeover design experiments are as suitable as continuous ones for studying protein metabolism in ruminant animals, except when changes in body weight or carryover effects due to treatment are expected. Adaptation following a dietary change should be allowed for at least 2 (preferably 3) wk, and extended adaptation periods may be required if body pools can temporarily supply the nutrients studied. Dietary protein degradability in the rumen and intestines are feed characteristics determining the primary AA available to the host animal. They can be estimated using in situ, in vitro, or in vivo techniques with each having inherent advantages and disadvantages. Accurate, precise, and inexpensive laboratory assays for feed protein availability are still needed. Techniques used for direct determination of rumen microbial protein synthesis are laborious and expensive, and data variability can be unacceptably large; indirect approaches have not shown the level of accuracy required for widespread adoption. Techniques for studying postruminal digestion and absorption of nitrogenous compounds, urea recycling, and mammary AA metabolism are also laborious, expensive (especially the methods that use isotopes), and results can be variable, especially the methods based on measurements of digesta or blood flow. Volatile loss of N from feces and particularly urine can be substantial during collection, processing, and analysis of excreta, compromising the accuracy of measurements of total-tract N digestion and body N balance. In studying ruminant N metabolism, nutritionists should consider the longer term fate of manure N as well. Various techniques used to determine the effects of animal nutrition on total N, ammonia- or nitrous oxide-emitting potentials, as well as plant fertilizer value, of manure are available. Overall, methods to study ruminant N metabolism have been developed over 150 yr of animal nutrition research, but many of them are laborious and impractical for application on a large number of animals. The increasing environmental concerns associated with livestock production systems necessitate more accurate and reliable methods to determine manure N emissions in the context of feed composition and ruminant N metabolism.

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KW - manure

KW - metabolism

KW - nitrogen

KW - ruminant animal

KW - technique

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JF - Journal of Dairy Science

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