Investigation of Structural Transformations During the Manufacturing of Expanded Snacks for Reformulation Purposes

R.G.M. van der Sman*, J. Williams, J.R. Bows

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


In this paper, we investigate the functionality of potato-based ingredients present in indirectly expanded snacks via careful analysis of their transformation during processing. This research is driven by the desire of industry to develop similar snacks for upcoming markets, where the potato-based ingredients are replaced by other starch sources, which are locally available and at a lower cost. For a range of reformulated snacks, the transformations of starchy ingredients are analysed with a wide variety of experimental methods, like DSC, XRD, and XRT. Our analysis shows that ingredients undergo little transformations during extrusion, which is indeed intended to be mild. During frying native tuber starches (potato and tapioca starch) fully gelatinize, while cereal starches show little gelatinization and swelling. Despite the gelatinization of tuber starches, the particulate character of ingredients is retained. Replacement of pregelatinized potato starch with other starches shows little change in structure. The evolution of the structure of the reformulated snacks are analysed with the CDS formalism. We conclude that gel formers and hard fillers present in the analysed formulations had little functionality regarding texture or structure. For texture, it appears to be required that the matrix composes of a bicontinuous structure of soft fillers, namely gelatinized tuber starches and potato dehydrates. Both these ingredients can be replaced by other tuber-starch sources if the aggregation of the two soft fillers can be prevented. Commercial availability of tuber flours can still be an issue.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages20
JournalFood Biophysics
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 10 Oct 2020


  • Expanded snacks
  • Ingredient functionality
  • Reformulation

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