Interspecific hybrids between Lilium longiflorum (L, 2n = 2x = 24) and Lilium rubellum (R, 2n = 2x = 24) were produced with the aim of transferring desirable horticultural traits from L. rubellum to L. longiflorum. All F1 hybrids (LR, 2n = 2x = 24) and BC1 individuals (LLR, 2n = 3x = 36) were phenotypically uniform for plant height, flowering time, leaf shape and flower colour. The BC1 plants were, in spite of their triploid nature, fertile and could be used as a female parent in backcrossmgs with autotetraploid L. longiflorum (LLLL, Zn = 4x = 48). Twelve BC2 individuals were obtained and three of them were selected for further chromosome analysis. As L. longiflorum and L. rubellum chromosomes were indistinguishable in the hybrids, genomic in-situ hybridization (GISH) was applied to establish the parentage of the chromosomes of the F1 hybrids and the BC1 and BC2 progenies. GISH confirmed the LLRR constitution of the doubled amphimonoploid (allodiploid), and the LLR constitution of all BC1 plants. The three selected BC2 plants were, as expected, aneuploid, containing three complete sets of L. longiflorum chromosomes and six, seven or eight L. rubellum chromosomes, respectively. However, L/R translocation or recombinant chromosomes could not be demonstrated in the mitotic metaphase complements of the F1, BC1 and BC2 plants. In spite of the high frequencies of homoeologous recombination in the F1 hybrids (LR) pollen was found to be sterile in all cases. At metaphase I of the pollen mother cells of the BC1 plants, genome painting did not reveal any cases of homoeologous pairing and recombination between L and R chromosomes. This lack of exchange between homoeologous chromosome segments indicates complete preferential pairing of the L and R chromosomes in the F1 (amphidiploid) and BC1 plants. It seems that the preferential pairing in the F1 and BC1 hybrids hinder the introgression of the chromosome segments or species-specific genes into the recipient for breeding purposes.
Lim, K. B., Chung, J. D., van Kronenburg, B. C. E., Ramanna, M. S., de Jong, J. H., & van Tuyl, J. M. (2000). Introgression of Lilium rubellum Baker chromosomes into L. longiflorum Thunb.: a genome painting study of the F1 hybrid, BC1 and BC2 progenies. Chromosome Research, 8(2), 119-125. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009290418889