India has made considerable progress onthe overall macro-economic indicators sinceindependence in 1947. The country showedresilience to economic shocks, which wasevident during the global food, fuel and financial crisis of 2008–2009. However, agriculture has remained lagging behind theother sectors of the economy and is facing ahigher degree of volatility. In the first decade of 21st century, average economicgrowth was more than 7%, while growthwas less than 4% in the agriculture sectoron which more than half of the populationdepends for its livelihood. Although theGovernment of India has launched severalprogrammes and reformed policies to increase agricultural production, the target toachieve 4% annual growth rate could not berealized. The main reasons for relativelypoor growth in the agriculture sector werefalling size and fragmenting of landholdings, near stagnating public investment, increasing pressure of farm subsidies, slowingirrigation expansion, hindering access tocredit, marginalizing agricultural labour, andgrowing environmental stresses. Such factors remain a major challenge to the publicsector for accelerating agricultural performance. This needs to create greater space forthe private sector engagement, from seeds to storage, to processing and retailing that can help lift the overall growth in the agriculture sector and ensure food and nutritional security for the masses.The present volume has a forward looking approach, exploring structural changes in India’s agrifood system in the coming10 to 20 years. The dynamics in the agrifood sector are explored in the context of the overall economy, taking into account agricultural and trade policies and their impacts on national and global markets, and assessing their implications on food security and poverty alleviation. The book draws from qualitative and quantitative approaches,using a national model – to focus on urban–rural relations and income distribution – and an international model – to focus on patterns of economic growth and international trade.