Interrelations Between Food Form, Texture, and Matrix Influence Energy Intake and Metabolic Responses

Ciarán G. Forde*, Dieuwerke Bolhuis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose of Review: Nutrition often focuses on food composition, yet differences in food form, texture, and matrix influence energy intake and metabolism. This review outlines how these attributes of food impact oral processing, energy intake, and metabolism. Recent Findings: Food form has a well-established impact on intake, where liquids are consumed more than solids and semi-solids. For solids, texture properties like thickness, hardness, and lubrication, and geometrical properties like size and shape influence oral processing, eating rate, and intake. Food matrix integrity can influence nutrient and energy absorption and is strongly influenced by food processing. Summary: Food texture and matrix play important roles in modulating energy intake and absorption. Future research needs to consider the often overlooked role of texture and matrix effects on energy and metabolic responses to composite foods and meals. Research is needed to understand how processing impacts macro- and micro-structure of food and its long-term impact on energy balance and health.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)124-132
JournalCurrent Nutrition Reports
Issue number2
Early online date24 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • Eating rate
  • Energy intake
  • Food form
  • Matrix
  • Metabolic response
  • Texture


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