Intercropping simulation using the SWAP model: Development of a 2x1D algorithm

Victor Meriguetti Pinto*, Jos C. van Dam, Quirijn de Jong van Lier, Klaus Reichardt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Intercropping is a common cultivation system in sustainable agriculture, allowing crop diversity and better soil surface exploitation. Simulation of intercropped plants with integrated soil-plant-atmosphere models is a challenging procedure due to the requirement of a second spatial dimension for calculating the soil water lateral flux. Evaluations of more straightforward approaches for intercrop modeling are, therefore, mandatory. An adaptation of the 1D model Soil, Water, Atmosphere and Plant coupled to the World Food Studies (SWAP/WOFOST) to simulate intercropping (SWAP 2x1D) based on solar radiation and water partitioning between plant strips was developed and the outcomes are presented. An application of SWAP 2x1D to maize-soybean (MS) strip intercropping was evaluated against the monocropping maize (M) and soybean (S) simulated with the 1D model SWAP/WOFOST, and a sensitivity analysis of SWAP 2x1D was carried out for the intercropping MS. SWAP 2x1D was able to simulate the radiation interception by both crops in the intercropping MS and also to determine the effect of the radiation attenuation by maize on soybean plants. Intercropped plants presented higher transpiration and resulted in lower soil evaporation when compared to their equivalent monocropping cultivation. A numerical issue involving model instability caused by the simulated lateral water flux in the soil from one strip to the other was solved. The most sensitive plant parameters were those related to the taller plant strips in the intercropping, and soil retention curve parameters were overall all significantly sensitive for the water balance simulation. This implementation of the SWAP model presents an opportunity to simulate strip intercropping with a limited number of parameters, including the partitioning of radiation by a well-validated radiation sharing model and of soil water by simulating the lateral soil water fluxes between strips in the 2x1D environment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number126
JournalAgriculture (Switzerland)
Volume9
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jun 2019

Fingerprint

intercropping
Soil
Soybeans
Water
Zea mays
soil water
soybeans
corn
Atmosphere
Radiation
continuous cropping
soil
Food
sustainable agriculture
crops
Radiation Effects
water balance
Agriculture
evaporation
transpiration

Keywords

  • Intercropping modeling
  • Lateral water flux
  • Radiation sharing
  • SWAP

Cite this

Pinto, Victor Meriguetti ; van Dam, Jos C. ; de Jong van Lier, Quirijn ; Reichardt, Klaus. / Intercropping simulation using the SWAP model: Development of a 2x1D algorithm. In: Agriculture (Switzerland). 2019 ; Vol. 9, No. 6.
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title = "Intercropping simulation using the SWAP model: Development of a 2x1D algorithm",
abstract = "Intercropping is a common cultivation system in sustainable agriculture, allowing crop diversity and better soil surface exploitation. Simulation of intercropped plants with integrated soil-plant-atmosphere models is a challenging procedure due to the requirement of a second spatial dimension for calculating the soil water lateral flux. Evaluations of more straightforward approaches for intercrop modeling are, therefore, mandatory. An adaptation of the 1D model Soil, Water, Atmosphere and Plant coupled to the World Food Studies (SWAP/WOFOST) to simulate intercropping (SWAP 2x1D) based on solar radiation and water partitioning between plant strips was developed and the outcomes are presented. An application of SWAP 2x1D to maize-soybean (MS) strip intercropping was evaluated against the monocropping maize (M) and soybean (S) simulated with the 1D model SWAP/WOFOST, and a sensitivity analysis of SWAP 2x1D was carried out for the intercropping MS. SWAP 2x1D was able to simulate the radiation interception by both crops in the intercropping MS and also to determine the effect of the radiation attenuation by maize on soybean plants. Intercropped plants presented higher transpiration and resulted in lower soil evaporation when compared to their equivalent monocropping cultivation. A numerical issue involving model instability caused by the simulated lateral water flux in the soil from one strip to the other was solved. The most sensitive plant parameters were those related to the taller plant strips in the intercropping, and soil retention curve parameters were overall all significantly sensitive for the water balance simulation. This implementation of the SWAP model presents an opportunity to simulate strip intercropping with a limited number of parameters, including the partitioning of radiation by a well-validated radiation sharing model and of soil water by simulating the lateral soil water fluxes between strips in the 2x1D environment.",
keywords = "Intercropping modeling, Lateral water flux, Radiation sharing, SWAP",
author = "Pinto, {Victor Meriguetti} and {van Dam}, {Jos C.} and {de Jong van Lier}, Quirijn and Klaus Reichardt",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
day = "16",
doi = "10.3390/agriculture9060126",
language = "English",
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Intercropping simulation using the SWAP model: Development of a 2x1D algorithm. / Pinto, Victor Meriguetti; van Dam, Jos C.; de Jong van Lier, Quirijn; Reichardt, Klaus.

In: Agriculture (Switzerland), Vol. 9, No. 6, 126, 16.06.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Intercropping simulation using the SWAP model: Development of a 2x1D algorithm

AU - Pinto, Victor Meriguetti

AU - van Dam, Jos C.

AU - de Jong van Lier, Quirijn

AU - Reichardt, Klaus

PY - 2019/6/16

Y1 - 2019/6/16

N2 - Intercropping is a common cultivation system in sustainable agriculture, allowing crop diversity and better soil surface exploitation. Simulation of intercropped plants with integrated soil-plant-atmosphere models is a challenging procedure due to the requirement of a second spatial dimension for calculating the soil water lateral flux. Evaluations of more straightforward approaches for intercrop modeling are, therefore, mandatory. An adaptation of the 1D model Soil, Water, Atmosphere and Plant coupled to the World Food Studies (SWAP/WOFOST) to simulate intercropping (SWAP 2x1D) based on solar radiation and water partitioning between plant strips was developed and the outcomes are presented. An application of SWAP 2x1D to maize-soybean (MS) strip intercropping was evaluated against the monocropping maize (M) and soybean (S) simulated with the 1D model SWAP/WOFOST, and a sensitivity analysis of SWAP 2x1D was carried out for the intercropping MS. SWAP 2x1D was able to simulate the radiation interception by both crops in the intercropping MS and also to determine the effect of the radiation attenuation by maize on soybean plants. Intercropped plants presented higher transpiration and resulted in lower soil evaporation when compared to their equivalent monocropping cultivation. A numerical issue involving model instability caused by the simulated lateral water flux in the soil from one strip to the other was solved. The most sensitive plant parameters were those related to the taller plant strips in the intercropping, and soil retention curve parameters were overall all significantly sensitive for the water balance simulation. This implementation of the SWAP model presents an opportunity to simulate strip intercropping with a limited number of parameters, including the partitioning of radiation by a well-validated radiation sharing model and of soil water by simulating the lateral soil water fluxes between strips in the 2x1D environment.

AB - Intercropping is a common cultivation system in sustainable agriculture, allowing crop diversity and better soil surface exploitation. Simulation of intercropped plants with integrated soil-plant-atmosphere models is a challenging procedure due to the requirement of a second spatial dimension for calculating the soil water lateral flux. Evaluations of more straightforward approaches for intercrop modeling are, therefore, mandatory. An adaptation of the 1D model Soil, Water, Atmosphere and Plant coupled to the World Food Studies (SWAP/WOFOST) to simulate intercropping (SWAP 2x1D) based on solar radiation and water partitioning between plant strips was developed and the outcomes are presented. An application of SWAP 2x1D to maize-soybean (MS) strip intercropping was evaluated against the monocropping maize (M) and soybean (S) simulated with the 1D model SWAP/WOFOST, and a sensitivity analysis of SWAP 2x1D was carried out for the intercropping MS. SWAP 2x1D was able to simulate the radiation interception by both crops in the intercropping MS and also to determine the effect of the radiation attenuation by maize on soybean plants. Intercropped plants presented higher transpiration and resulted in lower soil evaporation when compared to their equivalent monocropping cultivation. A numerical issue involving model instability caused by the simulated lateral water flux in the soil from one strip to the other was solved. The most sensitive plant parameters were those related to the taller plant strips in the intercropping, and soil retention curve parameters were overall all significantly sensitive for the water balance simulation. This implementation of the SWAP model presents an opportunity to simulate strip intercropping with a limited number of parameters, including the partitioning of radiation by a well-validated radiation sharing model and of soil water by simulating the lateral soil water fluxes between strips in the 2x1D environment.

KW - Intercropping modeling

KW - Lateral water flux

KW - Radiation sharing

KW - SWAP

U2 - 10.3390/agriculture9060126

DO - 10.3390/agriculture9060126

M3 - Article

VL - 9

JO - Agriculture

JF - Agriculture

SN - 2077-0472

IS - 6

M1 - 126

ER -