Interconnectable solid-liquid protein extraction unit and chip-based dilution for multiplexed consumer immunodiagnostics

Georgina M.S. Ross, Daniel Filippini, Michel W.F. Nielen, Gert IJ. Salentijn*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


While consumer-focused food analysis is upcoming, the need for multiple sample preparation and handling steps is limiting. On-site and consumer-friendly analysis paradoxically still requires laboratory-based and skill-intensive sample preparation methods. Here, we present a compact, inexpensive, and novel prototype immunosensor combining sample preparation and on-chip reagent storage for multiplex allergen lateral flow immunosensing. Our comprehensive approach paves the way for personalized consumer diagnostics. The prototype allows for handheld solid-liquid extraction, pipette-free on-chip dilution, and adjustment of sample concentrations into the appropriate assay dynamic working range. The disposable and interconnectable homogenizer unit allows for the extraction and 3D-sieve based filtration of allergenic proteins from solid bakery products in 1 min. The homogenizer interconnects with a 3D-printed unibody lab-on-a-chip (ULOC) microdevice, which is used to deliver precise volumes of sample extract to a reagent reservoir. The reagent reservoir is implemented for on-chip storage of carbon nanoparticle labeled antibodies and running buffer for dilution. The handheld prototype allows for total homogenization of solid samples, solid-liquid protein extraction, 3D-printed sieve based filtration, ULOC-enabled dilution, mixing, transport, and smartphone-based detection of hazelnut and peanut allergens in solid bakery products with limited operational complexity. The multiplex lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) detects allergens as low as 0.1 ppm in real bakery products, and the system is already consumer-operable, demonstrating its potential for future citizen science approaches. The designed system is suitable for a wide range of analytical applications outside of food safety, provided an LFIA is available.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)190-198
JournalAnalytica Chimica Acta
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2020

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