Interactive Effects of Temperature, Water Regime, and [CO2] on Wheats with Different Heat Susceptibilities

Rong Zhou*, Benita Hyldgaard, Lamis Abdelhakim, Thayna Mendanha, Steven Driever, Davide Cammarano, Eva Rosenqvist, Carl Otto Ottosen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Plants’ response to single environmental changes can be highly distinct from the response to multiple changes. The effects of a single environmental factor on wheat growth have been well documented. However, the interactive influences of multiple factors on different wheat genotypes need further investigation. Here, treatments of three important growth factors, namely water regime, temperature, and CO2 concentration ([CO2]), were applied to compare the response of two wheat genotypes with different heat sensitivities. The temperature response curves showed that both genotypes showed more variations at elevated [CO2] (e[CO2]) than ambient [CO2] (a[CO2]) when the plants were treated under different water regimes and temperatures. This corresponded to the results of water use efficiency at the leaf level. At e[CO2], heat-tolerant ‘Gladius’ showed a higher net photosynthetic rate (Pn), while heat-susceptible ‘Paragon’ had a lower Pn at reduced water, as compared with full water availability. The temperature optimum for photosynthesis in wheat was increased when the growth temperature was high, while the leaf carbon/nitrogen was increased via a reduced water regime. Generally, water regime, temperature and [CO2] have significant interactive effects on both wheat genotypes. Two wheat genotypes showed different physiological responses to different combinations of environmental factors. Our investigation concerning the interactions of multi-environmental factors on wheat will benefit the future wheat climate-response study.

Original languageEnglish
Article number830
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • elevated CO concentration
  • increased temperature
  • physiological response
  • reduced watering
  • wheat


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