Interactive effects of dietary crude protein and fermentable carbohydrate levels on odour from pig manure

D.P. Le, A.J.A. Aarnink, A.W. Jongbloed, C.M.C. van der Peet-Schwering, N.W.M. Ogink, M.W.A. Verstegen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary levels of crude protein (CP) and levels of fermentable carbohydrates (FC) and their interaction on odour emission, odour intensity, odour hedonic tone, and ammonia emission from pig manure, and manure characteristics. An experiment was conducted with finishing pigs (n = 36) in a 2 × 3 factorial randomized complete block arrangement with 6 treatment combinations in 6 blocks. There were 2 dietary CP levels (low 12%; high 18%) and 3 digestible FC levels: (low 95.5; medium 145.5; and high 195.5 g/kg feed, as-fed basis). Pigs with an initial body weight (BW) of 57.7 ± 2.5 kg were penned individually in partly slatted floor pens. Faeces and urine of each pig accumulated in separate manure pits under the slatted floor. In the 6th week of the collection period air samples were collected directly above the manure in each pit. Manure samples were taken for manure characteristics. Air samples were analyzed for odour concentration and for hedonic tone and odour intensity. Manure samples were analyzed for volatile fatty acids (VFA), indoles, phenoles, sulphurous compounds, ammonium, and total N concentrations. Dietary CP level and FC level did not affect odour emission, odour intensity and hedonic tone but their interaction affected odour emission at P = 0.06. At a high dietary CP level, increased FC level decreased odour emission, while at a low CP level, increased FC level increased odour emission from pig manure. Total N and ammonium concentrations, and ammonia emission from pig manure were reduced at low dietary CP level (P <0.001). High FC level led to low ammonia emission from pig manure (P = 0.01). Manure pH increased at high dietary CP level (P <0.001) and decreased when FC level increased (P <0.05). Total VFA concentration increased at high dietary CP level (P <0.001) and when FC level increased (P <0.001). Enhanced dietary CP increased the manure concentrations of phenol (P <0.001), cresols (P = 0.01), indole (P <0.001), 4-ethylphenol (P <0.001) and carbon disulfide (P <0.001), but FC did not affect concentrations of these compounds (P > 0.05) in the manure. We conclude that the interaction between dietary CP and FC plays a role in odour production and emission. Ammonia emission from pig manure can be reduced substantially by decreasing dietary CP and by increasing FC.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)48-61
JournalLivestock Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2008


  • growing-finishing pigs
  • volatile fatty-acids
  • nitrogen-excretion
  • ammonia emission
  • nonstarch polysaccharide
  • swine manure
  • slurry
  • fiber
  • colon
  • volatilization


Dive into the research topics of 'Interactive effects of dietary crude protein and fermentable carbohydrate levels on odour from pig manure'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this