Integration of growth and patterning during vascular tissue formation in Arabidopsis

B. De Rybel, M. Adibi, A.S. Breda, J.R. Wendrich, M.E. Smit, O. Novák, N. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, G. van Isterdael, J. Palovaara, B. Nijsse, M.V. Boekschoten, G.J.E.J. Hooiveld, T. Beeckman, D. Wagner, K. Ljung, C. Fleck, D. Weijers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

226 Citations (Scopus)


Coordination of cell division and pattern formation is central to tissue and organ development, particularly in plants where walls prevent cell migration. Auxin and cytokinin are both critical for division and patterning, but it is unknown how these hormones converge upon tissue development. We identify a genetic network that reinforces an early embryonic bias in auxin distribution to create a local, nonresponding cytokinin source within the root vascular tissue. Experimental and theoretical evidence shows that these cells act as a tissue organizer by positioning the domain of oriented cell divisions. We further demonstrate that the auxin-cytokinin interaction acts as a spatial incoherent feed-forward loop, which is essential to generate distinct hormonal response zones, thus establishing a stable pattern within a growing vascular tissue.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1255215
Number of pages9
Issue number6197
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • dependent auxin gradients
  • solid-phase extraction
  • shoot apical meristem
  • transcription factor
  • root
  • cytokinins
  • purification
  • expression
  • transport
  • genes


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