The aim of the present study was to predict the effect of inter-individual and inter-ethnic human kinetic variation on the sensitivity towards acute liver toxicity of lasiocarpine in the Chinese and the Caucasian population, and to derive chemical specific adjustment factors (CSAFs) by integrating variation in the in vitro kinetic constants Vmax and Km, physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling and Monte Carlo simulation. CSAFs were derived covering the 90th and 99th percentile of the population distribution of pyrrole glutathione adduct (7-GS-DHP) formation, reflecting bioactivation. The results revealed that in the Chinese population, as compared to the Caucasian population, the predicted 7-GS-DHP formation at the geometric mean, the 90th and the 99th percentile were 2.1-, 3.3- and 4.3-fold lower respectively. The CSAFs obtained using the 99th percentile values were 8.3, 17.0 and 19.5 in the Chinese, the Caucasian population and the two populations combined, respectively, while the CSAFs were generally 3.0-fold lower at the 90th percentile. These results indicate that when considering the formation of 7-GS-DHP the Caucasian population may be more sensitive towards acute liver toxicity of lasiocarpine, and further point out that the default safety factor of 3.16 for inter-individual human kinetic differences may not be sufficiently protective. Altogether, the results obtained demonstrate that integrating PBK modelling with Monte Carlo simulations using human in vitro data is a powerful strategy to quantify inter-individual variations in kinetics, and can be used to refine the human risk assessment of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.
- Chemical specific adjustment factors
- Monte Carlo simulations
- Physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model
- Pyrrole glutathione adduct