Integrating In Vitro Data and Physiologically Based Kinetic Modeling to Predict and Compare Acute Neurotoxic Doses of Saxitoxin in Rats, Mice, and Humans

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Abstract

Current climate trends are likely to expand the geographic distribution of the toxigenic microalgae and concomitant phycotoxins, making intoxications by such toxins a global phenomenon. Among various phycotoxins, saxitoxin (STX) acts as a neurotoxin that might cause severe neurological symptoms in mammals following consumptions of contaminated seafood. To derive a point of departure (POD) for human health risk assessment upon acute neurotoxicity induced by oral STX exposure, a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modeling-facilitated quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (QIVIVE) approach was employed. The PBK models for rats, mice, and humans were built using parameters from the literature, in vitro experiments, and in silico predictions. Available in vitro toxicity data for STX were converted to in vivo dose-response curves via the PBK models established for these three species, and POD values were derived from the predicted curves and compared to reported in vivo toxicity data. Interspecies differences in acute STX toxicity between rodents and humans were found, and they appeared to be mainly due to differences in toxicokinetics. The described approach resulted in adequate predictions for acute oral STX exposure, indicating that new approach methodologies, when appropriately integrated, can be used in a 3R-based chemical risk assessment paradigm.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10974-10984
Number of pages11
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume57
Issue number30
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2023

Keywords

  • neurotoxicity
  • physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model
  • quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (QIVIVE)
  • risk assessment
  • saxitoxin

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