Crop production in China has been greatly improved by increasing phosphorus (P) fertilizer input, but overuse of P by farmers has caused low use efficiency, increasing environmental risk and accumulation of P in soil. From 1980 to 2007, average 242 kg P ha-1 accumulated in soil, resulting in average soil Olsen P increasing from 7.4 to 24.7 mg kg-1. China is facing huge challenges to improve P use efficiency through optimizing corresponding technology and policies. The problem is exacerbated because people have been shifting their diet from plant-based to animal-enriched foods. This results in higher P load in the food chain and lower P use efficiency. A multidisciplinary approach has been used to improve P management at the field and national level in China. Management strategies based on the soil and on the plant rhizosphere have been developed to increase efficient use of P. A national soil testing and fertilizer recommendation program has been used since 2005 to control build-up and maintenance of P levels. Interactions between root growth and the rhizosphere have been manipulated in intercropping systems and plant genetic traits have been exploited. Phosphorus surplus is highly associated with animal concentrated feed. The P-saving potential by the integrated P management strategies of P flow reaches 1.46 Mt P in 2050 compared to 2005.
- affinity phosphate transporter