Influence of Roasting of Shea Kernels on Their Fat Content and Some Quality Characteristics of Shea Butter

G.F. Honfo, A.R. Linnemann, Meng Guo, N. Akissoe, M.M. Soumanou, T. van Boekel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

In shea production zones in Sub-Saharan Africa, shea butter is mostly produced by women using traditional methods. Improvement of their practices would allow them to obtain better monetary returns for their activities. Roasting of crushed shea kernels is a processing step that has a major influence on the quantity and quality of extracted shea butter. Using a central composite face-centered design (CCFD), the effect of roasting, specifically roasting time and temperature was investigated. Both factors influenced fat content (44-53% dw) of the crushed kernels; colour characteristics and free fatty acid (FFA) content (0.5-3%) of the butter. In shea butter from differently roasted kernels, 58 volatile compounds were identified, of which 11 were quantitatively dominant, against 27 compounds in butter from unroasted kernels. The ideal practice according to the CCFD model is roasting at 171 ºC for 15 min, which resulted in a fat content of 49% dw of the kernels, a butter yield of 32%, a FFA of 1.2% of the butter, and a peroxide value of 3.2 meq O2/kg. This optimum roasting time is appreciably shorter than the current practice, suggesting that the use of firewood during traditional processing can be reduced.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)66-80
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Food Studies
Volume6
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2017

Fingerprint

shea butter
shea
Butter
roasting
butter
Fats
lipid content
seeds
free fatty acids
Nonesterified Fatty Acids
traditional technology
fuelwood
peroxide value
Sub-Saharan Africa
volatile compounds
Africa South of the Sahara
Peroxides
fatty acid composition
color
Color

Cite this

@article{6bdec144fe7248009cc52e4b98e1de53,
title = "Influence of Roasting of Shea Kernels on Their Fat Content and Some Quality Characteristics of Shea Butter",
abstract = "In shea production zones in Sub-Saharan Africa, shea butter is mostly produced by women using traditional methods. Improvement of their practices would allow them to obtain better monetary returns for their activities. Roasting of crushed shea kernels is a processing step that has a major influence on the quantity and quality of extracted shea butter. Using a central composite face-centered design (CCFD), the effect of roasting, specifically roasting time and temperature was investigated. Both factors influenced fat content (44-53{\%} dw) of the crushed kernels; colour characteristics and free fatty acid (FFA) content (0.5-3{\%}) of the butter. In shea butter from differently roasted kernels, 58 volatile compounds were identified, of which 11 were quantitatively dominant, against 27 compounds in butter from unroasted kernels. The ideal practice according to the CCFD model is roasting at 171 ºC for 15 min, which resulted in a fat content of 49{\%} dw of the kernels, a butter yield of 32{\%}, a FFA of 1.2{\%} of the butter, and a peroxide value of 3.2 meq O2/kg. This optimum roasting time is appreciably shorter than the current practice, suggesting that the use of firewood during traditional processing can be reduced.",
author = "G.F. Honfo and A.R. Linnemann and Meng Guo and N. Akissoe and M.M. Soumanou and {van Boekel}, T.",
year = "2017",
month = "11",
day = "15",
doi = "10.5296/jfs.v6i1.10881",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
pages = "66--80",
journal = "International Journal of Food Studies",
issn = "2182-1054",
publisher = "ISEKI Food Association",
number = "1",

}

Influence of Roasting of Shea Kernels on Their Fat Content and Some Quality Characteristics of Shea Butter. / Honfo, G.F.; Linnemann, A.R.; Guo, Meng; Akissoe, N.; Soumanou, M.M.; van Boekel, T.

In: International Journal of Food Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1, 15.11.2017, p. 66-80.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Influence of Roasting of Shea Kernels on Their Fat Content and Some Quality Characteristics of Shea Butter

AU - Honfo, G.F.

AU - Linnemann, A.R.

AU - Guo, Meng

AU - Akissoe, N.

AU - Soumanou, M.M.

AU - van Boekel, T.

PY - 2017/11/15

Y1 - 2017/11/15

N2 - In shea production zones in Sub-Saharan Africa, shea butter is mostly produced by women using traditional methods. Improvement of their practices would allow them to obtain better monetary returns for their activities. Roasting of crushed shea kernels is a processing step that has a major influence on the quantity and quality of extracted shea butter. Using a central composite face-centered design (CCFD), the effect of roasting, specifically roasting time and temperature was investigated. Both factors influenced fat content (44-53% dw) of the crushed kernels; colour characteristics and free fatty acid (FFA) content (0.5-3%) of the butter. In shea butter from differently roasted kernels, 58 volatile compounds were identified, of which 11 were quantitatively dominant, against 27 compounds in butter from unroasted kernels. The ideal practice according to the CCFD model is roasting at 171 ºC for 15 min, which resulted in a fat content of 49% dw of the kernels, a butter yield of 32%, a FFA of 1.2% of the butter, and a peroxide value of 3.2 meq O2/kg. This optimum roasting time is appreciably shorter than the current practice, suggesting that the use of firewood during traditional processing can be reduced.

AB - In shea production zones in Sub-Saharan Africa, shea butter is mostly produced by women using traditional methods. Improvement of their practices would allow them to obtain better monetary returns for their activities. Roasting of crushed shea kernels is a processing step that has a major influence on the quantity and quality of extracted shea butter. Using a central composite face-centered design (CCFD), the effect of roasting, specifically roasting time and temperature was investigated. Both factors influenced fat content (44-53% dw) of the crushed kernels; colour characteristics and free fatty acid (FFA) content (0.5-3%) of the butter. In shea butter from differently roasted kernels, 58 volatile compounds were identified, of which 11 were quantitatively dominant, against 27 compounds in butter from unroasted kernels. The ideal practice according to the CCFD model is roasting at 171 ºC for 15 min, which resulted in a fat content of 49% dw of the kernels, a butter yield of 32%, a FFA of 1.2% of the butter, and a peroxide value of 3.2 meq O2/kg. This optimum roasting time is appreciably shorter than the current practice, suggesting that the use of firewood during traditional processing can be reduced.

U2 - 10.5296/jfs.v6i1.10881

DO - 10.5296/jfs.v6i1.10881

M3 - Article

VL - 6

SP - 66

EP - 80

JO - International Journal of Food Studies

JF - International Journal of Food Studies

SN - 2182-1054

IS - 1

ER -