Influence of lupin and chickpea flours on acrylamide formation and quality characteristics of biscuits

Maria Alessia Schouten*, Christos Fryganas, Silvia Tappi, Santina Romani, Vincenzo Fogliano

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Asparagine and sugars are direct precursors of acrylamide; however, proteins and fibres can also influence it. In this study, biscuits prepared replacing wheat flour with increasing concentrations (20, 40, 60%) of lupin or chickpea flour were investigated. Asparagine concentration was equalized in all formulas to isolate the effect of other flour characteristics on the acrylamide formation during baking. The results showed that replacing wheat flour with lupin flour increased acrylamide from 583.9 up to 1443 µg/kg after 9 min of baking, while 20–40% chickpea flour reduced acrylamide to 354.4–312.6 µg/kg. The acrylamide reduction using chickpea was attributed to the lower interaction between precursors resulting from both the coarser particle size and the lower reactivity of carbohydrate in presence of chickpea proteins. Chickpea addition did not affect the colour and texture of biscuits, opening the possibility for large-scale implementation of this mitigation strategy in formulas with a similar initial asparagine content.

Original languageEnglish
Article number134221
JournalFood Chemistry
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2023


  • Acrylamide
  • Acrylamide (PubChem CID: 6579)
  • Acrylamide-d (PubChem CID: 12209671)
  • Asparagine
  • Asparagine (PubChem CID: 6267)
  • Bakery products
  • Biscuits
  • Legume flours
  • Sucrose (PubChem CID: 5988)


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